2003 LTER All Scientist's Meeting 2003 LTER All Scientist's Meeting
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 2003 LTER ASM
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2003 LTER ASM Workshops:
Original Abstracts and Workshop Reports

 
Session I (Friday PM )
Title: Agricultural Landscapes in Transition: Case Studies at Six LTER Sites
Organizer: David Foster
Key participants: Charles Redman, David Foster, Ann Kinzig, Ted Gragson, Myron Gutmann, Ken Sylvester, Gerad Middendorf, Len Bloomquist, and Alan Rudy
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: This interdisciplinary, cross-site project traces the effects of the introduction, spread, and abandonment of agriculture at six U.S. LTER sites using a variety of monitoring strategies, quantitative modeling, and comparative data. Although agrarian transformations represent the most pervasive alteration of the Earth's terrestrial environment during the past 10,000 years, many conceptualizations of these transformations assume a simple linear model, with change driven by present-day economic, demographic, and technological conditions. This NSF project incorporates a more integrated and long-term cycle: of land-use change affecting landscapes, of altered landscapes affecting ecological processes, and of both influencing the ways in which humans monitor and respond to their surroundings, engendering further cycles of change. This workshop will feature narrative case studies from the six sites, a first step for identifying the prime determinants of long-term dynamics, present-day patterns, and reservoirs of ecological and social resilience. The case studies will describe the geophysical, environmental, and biological settings; pre-European context and dynamics; social, technological, and ecological drivers of agricultural and land-use change; cross-scale interactions over time; and the influence of legacies in social and ecological response. The cross-scale data collection and analyses are expected to demonstrate that some patterns of human-ecological interactions are surprisingly long term, vary across space and time, and are non-linear.
 
Title: Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Embedded Sensor Networks and Their Data
Organizer: Paul Hanson
Key participants: Paul Hanson, Tony Fountain, Yu Hen Hu, Deana Pennington
Workshop Report
Abstract: Recent advances in embedded sensing systems allow us to gather ecosystem data at rates greater than ever before. To take full advantage of embedded sensing systems, we often raise sampling to frequencies adequate for capturing the spatio-temporal dynamics of the ecosystem phenomenon in question. However, the increased sampling frequency creates a number of challenges, including (1) demands on embedded system power that cannot be maintained for prolonged periods, and (2) data densities that cannot be analyzed with adequate rapidity using traditional techniques. Some of the analysis issues apply to remotely sensed data as well. Artificial intelligence (AI) provides many promising techniques that can be applied to the problems identified above. Specifically, algorithms can be used to detect driving events of interest, and then adjust the sampling frequency in response variables to optimize both data collection and sensor system power consumption. Inherent spatio-temporal correlations among sensors in the embedded system allow for a coordinated approach to sampling that reduces the number of sensors that must be active at all times. For analyzing the resulting large data sets, pattern recognition algorithms allow for the detection of phenomena in the data, even when the system is controlled by a complex collection of seemingly random connections and occurrences. AI techniques also can be used for making decisions based on a combination of "expert knowledge" and the data in-hand. Through this workshop, we intend to meet a number of goals. (1) Present a variety of AI techniques, ranging from simple to complex. (2) Describe real-world applications of AI being used in ecosystems analyses for sensor networks and a remote sensing system. (3) Show how the application of AI can improve the performance of embedded sensor networks. (4) Organize an inter-site working group to develop additional applications of AI at interested LTER member sites.
 
Title: Communities and populations in space and time: practices, patterns, and potential causes
Organizer: Dawn Kaufman
Key participants: Co-organizers: Donald W. Kaufman, Glennis A. Kaufman
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: Data from the LTER network provide a unique opportunity to monitor biodiversity and examine organismal responses to change. This workshop focuses on community- and population-level patterns (e.g., richness and abundance, respectively) in a spatial and temporal context, description and comparison of the magnitude and pattern of variability and structure that exist, and assessment of potential underlying causes (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil moisture, habitat structure, productivity) of patterns. Included are opportunities for more application-oriented research presentations related to diversity, the environment, and conservation, such as the understanding of community assembly as well as responses to large-scale and small-scale environmental change (e.g., global warming and habitat fragmentation, respectively). We anticipate a focus on terrestrial animal taxa, but also would like to include plant and aquatic taxa in order to facilitate a true synthesis of pattern and process that transcends taxonomic boundaries and system barriers. Overall, we would like to assess (1) potential data for cross-site comparisons, (2) general correlative links that suggest potential mechanisms or areas to pursue (e.g., whether productive sites are more or less variable), and (3) whether general patterns exist with regard to magnitude and cause of temporal and spatial variability in populations and variability and structure of communities. Further, we encourage participation by any interested researchers, as well as representatives from interested sites, in a general assessment of current research results and dialogue about future synthesis and collaboration. Discussion could include consideration of the need for future initiatives to augment site-specific study of communities and populations.
 
Title: Controls on Sediment Organic Matter Accumulation: Comparisons Among Wetlands
Organizer: Linda Blum
Key participants: Linda Blum, Chris Craft, Jim Morris, Bob Christian, Chuck Hopkinson

Workshop Report

Abstract: The objective of this workshop will be to examine controls on wetland sediment organic matter (SOM). There are dramatic differences in wetland SOM that can not be explained by the commonly cited environmental factors including low temperatures, availability of electron acceptors, availability of nutrients, organic carbon quality, and/or the presence of inhibitors thought to be responsible for organic matter accumulation. Activities at this workshop will focus on synthesis of sediment data sets from the participant?s LTER sites and several other long-term study sites with the objective of formulating testable hypotheses to serve as the basis for collaborative research among interested LTER sites. A portion of the workshop will be devoted to discussion of a draft manuscript generated by this working group based on discussions at the last LTER All Scientists Meeting and a workshop in 2001.
 
Title: Current and Future LTER Research on Invasive Species Issues
Organizer: Timothy Seastedt
Key participants: Alan Knapp, William Lauenroth, Mendy Smith
Workshop Report
Abstract: Public interest groups and policy makes have identified species invasions as an issue of environmental and economic concern. Invasive species questions were identified in the 2002 20-yr LTER review and 2003 Coordination Committee meeting as important components of an emerging network-wide scientific initiative. The LTER program is preadapted to provide the research that can identify the mechanisms and drivers of species change. Nonindigeous species questions are nested within the larger framework of issues involving the causes and consequences of biotic change. Integrated, cross-site research efforts can be nested within experimental and descriptive efforts focused at understanding causes and consequences of biodiversity, succession, restoration, and role of biota in global environmental change. Presentations will center on new results from LTER sites on patterns and causal mechanisms of invasions, and tests of ecosystem invasibility. These will be followed by a discussion that will examine a) Mark Davis's (BioSci. 2003) hypotheses as foci for ongoing and new LTER efforts and b) explore ways to conduct invasive species research within the broader framework of LTER programs involved in the analysis of species change.
 
Title: Designing a network of hydrologic observatories
Organizer: Richard Hooper
Key participants: Rick Hooper, Diane McKnight, LTER hydrologists
Workshop Report
Abstract: The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) has been awarded a grant by the National Science Foundation to develop a prototype of a hydrologic observatory for the Neuse River basin in North Carolina. The fundamental concept behind these observatories is to develop a coherent, multidisciplinary data base embracing the entire hydrologic cycle (including the atmosphere) describing three fundamental characteristics of river basins: flowpaths of water among the various stores (e.g., groundwater, unsaturated zone, streams, lakes, atmospheric boundary layer) of the basin, residence time spectra of water within the stores, and fluxes of water, sediment, nutrients, and contaminants across interfaces between the stores. The nominal size of hydrologic observatories is planned to be 10,000 km2 and will include human-modified as well as natural areas. We believe that such a characterization will be useful not only to advance hydrologic science, but will also be useful to ecologists, geomorphologists, and biogeochemists. We also believe that significant cost savings can be achieved by coordinating these studies within observatories to obtain a much more complete characterization by multiple methods than can typically be done by individual investigators. We are seeking comments on our draft design that can be included in the final report, scheduled to be released in December, 2003.
 
Title: Developing collaborations among scientists, graduate students, and educators for LTER education
Organizer: Timothy Parshall
Key participants: Tim Parshall, Marty Green, Charlene Saltz
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: One of the goals for LTER sites is to develop education outreach programs that bring scientists, graduate students, and educators together to enhance the teaching of ecology in K12 schools. Several collaborative programs of this kind are already underway and many more are developing, a trend that will likely continue and require scientists and educators to be able to work together effectively. The goal of this working group is to identify the challenges and successes of working with a diverse education team and to encourage development of joint projects both within and across LTER sites. In addition to highlighting ongoing education programs at LTER sites, we will also discuss frequently encountered issues such as planning and running teacher workshops, merging science and pedagogy, and working directly with K12 teachers and students.
 
Title: Information Technology for the Decade of Synthesis: Tools for Data Synthesis in the Present and the Future
Organizer: Todd Ackerman
Key participants: Todd Ackerman (NWT), Ken Ramsey (JRN), Peter McCartney (CAP)
Workshop Report
Abstract: The Decade of Synthesis will require the LTER Network to integrate diverse data sets from individual site-based research programs in order to foster cross-site studies. The focus of this workshop will be on tools that are currently being developed to aid in such integration as well as on desires for future products. We will explore data integration methods through formal presentations of current synthesis research, tools in development, and the needs for future products. Round table discussions will follow the presentations to solicit researcher needs. Presentations: 1) Greg Newman, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University. "Hand-crafted Data Management: IT Tools Built to Last" 2) Wade Sheldon, GCE LTER. "Software tools for automated metadata creation, metadata-mediated data processing and quality control analysis -- real-time processing solutions for real-time data" 3) Chad Berkley, NCEAS. "Tools for Creating and Executing Scientific Workflows" 4) Corinna Gries/Peter McCartney, CAP LTER. "Southwest Environmental Informaton Network: Using EML to mediate data discover, access and visualization"
 
Title: Methods of determining denitrification rates in lotic ecosystems
Organizer: Walter Dodds
Key participants: Stuart Findlay, David Graham, Eric Strauss, Pat Mulholland, Jimmy McCutchen, Walter Dodds
Workshop Report
Abstract: Eutrophication of rivers and streams and downstream receiving waters depends in part upon N transport through rivers and streams. If nitrate is denitrified, it is removed from the ecosystem and not transported downstream. Measuring denitrification in flowing waters is difficult because heterogeneity interferes with efforts to scale up results from small incubations to whole ecosystem rates. Several potential methods exist to measure denitrification. 1) Acetylene-block incubations where the accumulation of N2O indicates denitrification, 2) whole stream releases of 15NO3- and subsequent measurement of rate of formation of 15N2O and 15N2, 3) Measurement of supersaturation of N2 with membrane inlet mass spectrometry and subsequent calculation of denitrification rates with equations similar to those used to compute whole-stream metabolism from O2 flux data, and 4) Molecular methods to assess expression of genes for denitrification. The strengths and weaknesses of each method will be discussed in short presentations, and a subsequent discussion will be used to coordinate a cross-site research strategy aimed toward design of critical tests of the various methods. The aim is to ultimately provide rationale for which denitrification method or methods to employ that will allow comparison across streams in different biomes and land uses.
 
Title: Nitrogen Budgeting at LTERs: Relation to Carbon Sequestration
Organizer: Herman Sievering
Key participants: Bill Munger (HFR), Jed Sparks (HBR): Co-organizers, and at least one person from all other LTERs
Workshop Report
Abstract: Application of ecosystem research for carbon policy formulation requires that fundamental ecosystem processes be characterized at appropriate scales of resolution and with known degrees of confidence. A key example is attribution of the large North American C sink. Eastern US forest re-growth and potential enhanced growth due to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is often mentioned as a major factor in this attribution. Atmospheric N is present in both reduced and oxidized states and may be deposited directly to foliage or to underlying soils. This variability complicates our ability to quantify the impact of atmospheric N deposition on C sequestration at terrestrial ecosystems. For example, N deposition retained in the canopy of spruce stands accounts for only 5% to as much 40% of annual N growth requirement. Nitrogen deposition may have a chronic effect on terrestrial ecosystems. Long-term measurements are a key to extracting trends in carbon accumulation from inherent variability. The goals of this workshop are: a) Evaluate existing data on N and C cycling at LTER sites to compare atmospheric and soil inputs of N as well as N reallocation, evidence of foliar N assimilation, and relationships between N inputs and C sequestration; b) Provide a framework for further investigation and synthesis using existing LTER data sets; c) Formulate testable hypotheses and identify critical data gaps that will serve as a guide for future LTER cross-site research.
 
Title: Planning for LTER Synthesis
Organizer: John Hobbie
Key participants: John Hobbie, Robert Waide, Nancy Grimm, Dan Childers, Hugh Ducklow, Ted Gragson, Marc Stieglitz
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: The LTER program is beginning a decade of synthesis. The goal is to use the network of sites to create general knowledge through the synthesis of information gained from long-term research and development of theory. At the workshop we will continue a planning process by involving a larger community to discuss the draft and add additional questions for synthesis. The plan identifies four steps: 1. Develop intellectual capital and culture for addressing knowledge that serves science and society. What improvements will train students for synthesis? How can we involve non-LTER and non-ecological scientists in synthesis? 2. Develop generalizable concepts for synthesis. A series of workshops is needed with scientists working at different scales, systems, and processes. What is the size and scale of synthetic projects for LTER? 3. Identify and overcome logistical barriers to synthesis. How can scientist?s time be freed up for synthesis? What gaps are there in our understanding, data on parameters, models, and instrumentation to answer the various questions? How can we obtain regional data at scales larger than an LTER site? 4. Provide comparable data sets from many sites. What data sets are needed for each synthesis project?
 
Title: Planning the Post-LIDET World of Intersite Decomposition Studies
Organizer: Mark Harmon
Key participants: Mark Harmon
Workshop Report
Abstract: This workshop will first discuss the major findings of the LIDET (Long-term Intersite Decomposition Experiment Team) study and current plans for analysis of the resultant data at NCEAS. The bulk of the workshop will turn to a discussion of possible follow up experiments to LIDET. This would include of expansion of other experiments in other regions that test similar hypotheses or entirely new types of hypotheses. Several possibilities, some of which were discussed at the last All-Scientists meeting in Snowbird, include: 1) an examination of decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of the so-called stable phase of decomposition, 2) site- versus network level responses to temperature, 3) year-to-year variability in decomposition rates within the LTER network, and 4) influences of biota on decomposition. The goal of this workshop would be to select one or more of these hypotheses, identify sites interested in participating in field tests and leaders to pursue funding opportunities.
 
Title: Promoting LTER in the East-Asia Pacific region
Organizer: Hen-biau King
Key participants: Alan Covich, Steve Hamburg, Eun-Shik Kim, Hen-Biau King, Shidong Zhao
Workshop Report
Abstract: Recent demographic, political, economic, and environmental trends in Asia make clear the need for LTER and related studies in the region. The East-Asian Pacific (EAP) LTER network was formally established in 1995. This network encompasses a diverse range of ecosystems, from larch forests to mangrove estuaries. Under the ILTER framework, four biannual conferences and several training workshops have been held. This workshop will begin with a review of past and current LTER studies within the region and then focus on promoting more collaborative projects within the region and beyond. Emphasis will be on the design of and effectively conducting regional ecological studies. A discussion of future proposed regional activities, funding sources, and priorities for the EAP will be held.
 
Title: SNOW AND ECOSYSTEMS IN A CHANGING CLIMATE: From pole to pole and mountains to the sea
Organizer: Mark Williams
Key participants: Peter Groffman, Mark Williams, others being contacted
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: Snow properties (depth, duration, meltout) respond in a non-linear fashion to changes in climate. Moreover, soil and air temperatures in many snow-covered ecosystems are near 0 degrees C. Consequently, the response of ecosystems to changes in snow properties may be both larger than expected in magnitude and in a counter-intuitive direction. For example, less snowfall in the NE may result in colder soil temperatures. A warming climate may result in colder air temperatures in Antarctica. Warming air temperatures in the Arctic may result in more snowfall, increased soil temperatures above that caused by increased air temperture, and hence a larger increase than expected in the active layer of permafrost zones. Goals of the workshop include: (a) a short report summarizing activities along thematic lines; and (b) development of a cross-site proposal.
 
Title: The Canopy Database Project:: An Informatics Resource for LTER IMs and Researchers
Organizer: Nalini Nadkarni, Judy Cushing
Key participants: Nalini Nadkarni, Judy Cushing, Kristin Vanderbilt, Ken Ramsey, Jonathan Walsh, Nicole Caplan, Eda Melendez
Workshop Report
Abstract: The management, analysis, and visualization of forest canopy data require specialized database tools that can be extended to broader ecological applications. In 1997, a group of forest canopy researchers and computer scientists created the Canopy Database Project to create informatics tools that would enhance the capacity of canopy researchers to manage their data at all stages of the research process. We have categorized canopy structure into a system with a finite number of "canopy space descriptors". This provides a framework to work at multiple spatial scales and facilitates cross-site comparison of forest structure. We have also developed a number of database design components, aka templates for efficient handling of complex data for data analysis and visualization. In May 2003, as a proof-of-concept activity, a two-day workshop with five LTER Information Managers, suggested novel cross-site comparisons and syntheses. In this workshop, we describe our database, which is comprised of forest structure/function studies from multiple PIs. We will also demonstrate our database tools, which include DataBank(a tool for database design) and CanopyView (a tool for data visualization). We will discuss potential uses of these software tools by LTER researchers and Information Managers, and determine what needs to be done to make these more useful to the larger ecological community.
 
Session II (Saturday AM)
Title: Accounting for Ecosystem Services within the LTER network
Organizer: Matthew Wilson
Key participants: Bob Costanza, Steve Carpenter, Dan Childers, J. Morgan Grove, Ted Gragson, Steve Hamburg, Craig Harris, Chuck Hopkinson.
Workshop Report
Abstract: This workshop will bring together a group of LTER scientists to assess the emerging role of ecosystem service valuation within the LTER "synthesis science" research agenda. An ecosystem service, by definition, contains "the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life" (Daily 1997). By identifying and accounting for ecosystem services within the LTER network, we anticipate that important social and economic benefits associated with LTER research that otherwise might remain hidden might be revealed. One explicit goal of the workshop is to solicit ideas for revising and resubmitting a biocomplexity research proposal to the National Science Foundation to study ecosystem services across selected LTER sites. Among other things, the group members may also choose to write a follow-up manuscript/white paper developing a conceptual framework for describing and measuring ecosystem services within the LTER network. The experiences facilitated by this workshop should ultimately prove very useful not only to group participants but to all scientists, students and policy makers associated with LTER. Better understanding of the dynamics of ecosystem services, their value in supporting human well-being, and their effective management across this spectrum has the potential for making a substantial contribution to science and society.
 
Title: Biological and Environmental Infrastructure: Science Needs, Infrastructure Opportunities, and Political Challenges and Realities
Organizer: William Michener
Key participants: Elizabeth Blood (NSF), Scott Collins (SEV), Adrienne Froelich (AIBS), Jeff Goldman (AIBS), Bruce Hayden (VCR), William Michener (NET), Cliff Gabriel (Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President)
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: The scientific and societal problems addressed by the LTER Network and our colleagues in the ecological and environmental sciences are formidable, requiring concerted long-term study by scientists from many disciplines employing state-of-the-art technologies and infrastructure. Within the research community, concensus is emerging that our scientific infrastructure is inadequate for addressing many of our most complex and challenging long-term and broad-scale problems. NEON has been proposed as one mechanism for addressing this technological inadequacy. What are the capabilities of our science with or without NEON? How do we better mobilize support for the infrastructure needed for ecology and the environmental sciences? What are alternatives and follow-ups to NEON? These and many other questions will be addressed by a panel of distinguished experts. First, Bruce Hayden (the Godfather of NEON) will assess the scientific community?s infrastructure needs. Second, Scott Collins will discuss many of the challenges and opportunities associated with acquiring the technologies for ecology. Third, Jeffrey Goldman will summarize past, present and future activities of the AIBS Committee for Infrastructure for Biology at Regional to Continental Scales. Fourth, Elizabeth Blood from NSF will address current and future plans for supporting the infrastructure underpinning the ecological and environmental sciences. Fifth, Adrienne Froelich will outline many of the political realities associated with infrastructural development based on her experiences as Director of Public Policy at AIBS. In the final presentation, Cliff Gabriel from the Office of Science and Technology Policy will examine political challenges associated with enhancing environmental biology research and infrastructure. A moderated roundtable discussion will serve to conclude the workshop by identifying where we go from here and how do we best get there.
 
Title: Comprehensive Databases to Link Molecular Survey and Environmental Data
Organizer: Bradley Stevenson
Key participants: James Hollibaugh (GCE), Jorge Rodrigues (KBS)
Workshop Report
Abstract: Molecular surveys of microbial communities are a first step in understanding an ecosystem, and the data generated can be of great value when it is linked to information about the environment from which it came. Molecular surveys at many LTER sites represent a large amount of sequence data that is linked to many of the best-studied biomes on the planet. This workshop will facilitate a discussion of the value of such a database, its structure, and the types of data that could and should be linked to molecular sequence data. A phylogenetically linked database would also be a useful place to store genomic data from large-insert clone libraries (i.e. BAC and fosmid libraries) derived from microbial communities. A standardized database would provide the structure to make molecular survey data from each LTER site readily available and also facilitate cross-site investigations of community structure and function.
 
Title: Coupled Biophysical-human systems: Identifying Key Processes, and Relevant Temporal and Spatial Scales
Organizer: Steve Garman, F. Chapin
Key participants: Amy Lovecraft, Denise Lach, Morgan Grove, Charles Redman, Steve Carpenter
Workshop Report
Abstract: Empirical evidence strongly indicates that neither biophysical or social systems operate in a simply additive manner. Under certain conditions, interactions between patterns and processes in biophysical systems and among social groups in human systems give rise to emergent behaviors within each system. Non-linear interactions between biophysical and human systems further promote complex, system-level behaviors. Understanding the conditions that give rise to emergent behaviors is thus critical to understanding the causes of stability or abrupt change in coupled biophysical-human systems. This workshop will provide a forum for discussing approaches to understanding complex behaviors within and between biophysical and human systems. Directed discussions will focus on determining key processes of coupled biophysical-human systems, temporal and spatial scales of processes, integration across scales and disciplines, data sources and needs, and empirical and synthetic methods for exploring behaviors of complex systems. The principal goals of this workshop are to stimulate discussion on the concepts and methods of coupled biophysical-human systems research, and on the current and future role of LTER science in this area of research. Examples of current and proposed methods for researching complex behaviors will be highlighted as a means to stimulate discussion. Participation by human-system scientists is highly encouraged to ensure balanced discussions.
 
Title: Disturbance and Variance: Detecting change in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
Organizer: James Rusak
Key participants: Co-organizers: Monica Turner, and Jennifer Fraterrigo
Workshop Report
Abstract: Populations, communities, and ecosystems vary in space and time. Variability is a fundamental property of natural systems, and its quantification and interpretation cross boundaries between many different disciplines. However, our understanding of how the temporal and spatial variability of ecological properties responds to disturbance is incomplete. Ecologists typically focus on changes in the mean to characterize system response to disturbance, but this may result in the loss of considerable information about the response. How often do perturbations affect system variability? Is altered variance a useful metric for detecting either direct effects or legacies of disturbance? What are the best approaches to detect changes in variability at different spatial and temporal scales or levels of organization? Given the wide variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances occurring at LTER sites (e.g., hurricanes, drought, fire, eutrophication, exotic invasions, and land-use change) and the broad range of ecological characteristics measured, our network is ideally suited to address such issues. The workshop will consist of a set of introductory talks followed by a dialogue on the issues, techniques, and available datasets. The primary goal is to encourage discussion and develop a network of sites interested in pursuing cross-site research and synthetic papers on this topic. INVITED SPEAKER: Pierre Legendre
 
Title: Facilitating collaborative research opportunities for graduate students
Organizer: Tiffany Gann
Key participants: Rob Daoust, graduate student committee representatives
Workshop Report
Abstract: Several recommendations put forth by the LTER 20-year review committee involve enhanced levels of funding "for achieving 21st century biology and synthesis science". To facilitate this goal, members of the graduate student committee will draft a plan to create strategies and identify budgetary needs to support graduate student collaborative research. The primary aim of this plan is to provide travel support for students to acquire new research methodologies being implemented at other LTER sites to be utilized in their own graduate research. Under this plan, PhD candidates would also have the opportunity to apply for small travel grants enabling them to incorporate other LTER or ILTER sites into their research. These and other suggestions will be discussed and amended for consideration as a component of the LTER Strategic Plan.
 
Title: Historical trends in land use/land cover: data and implications
Organizer: Jonathan Chipman
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: Changing land use/land cover patterns represent a significant ecological forcing factor at many LTER sites. This working group will compare and discuss approaches to developing long-term data on historical land use change and assessing the impacts of change. Topics for discussion include technical and conceptual aspects of projects for monitoring land use change (e.g., mapping protocols, classification systems, accuracy assessment); results from land use change studies; and implications of these results. The working group?s format will consist of a set of talks, followed by a substantial discussion period. The principal goal is to share expertise within the LTER community; those who are considering projects to map and analyze historical land use change, and those who have already undertaken such projects at their sites, are encouraged to participate. Potential results from this working group would include a cross-site web page containing summary information and links to land use change pages at individual sites, and/or a journal article.
 
Title: Information Technology for the Decade of Synthesis: LTER Partners and Projects - Leveraging Resources and Metadata to Meet a Common Goal
Organizer: Jonathan Walsh
Key participants: Tony Fountain (SDSC), Ken Ramsey (JRN), J. Morgan Grove (USDA Forest Service), Charlie Schweik (UMass AmherstIt), Peter Arzberger (SDSC), Barbara Benson (NTL), Dylan Keon (NACSE), Susan Stafford (U. of Minnesota), Judith Cushing (Evergreen College), Dave Vieglais (Species Analyst)
Workshop Report
Abstract: One of the greatest challenges facing the LTER Network is how to foster cross-site and cross-disciplinary synthesis. This workshop focuses on existing and potential partnerships being developed between the LTER Network and other organizations to help researchers in performing cross-site synthesis. These partnerships help members distribute and share resources and minimize duplicated efforts for solutions to common problems encountered. This workshop highlights some of the current partnerships and projects as well as potential partnerships that could be created in the future to support synthesis. Presentations: An Open Research System for Collaboration and Synthesis in Long Term Ecological Research - Morgan Grove Pacific Rim Application and Grid Middleware Assembly (PRAGMA) - Peter Arzberger Web Services for Computational Ecology - Tony Fountain Species Analyst - Dave Veiglais The Canopy Databank - Judith Cushing Link to abstracts: http://beslter.org/asm_2003_abstracts.html
 
Title: Integration in Eco-hydrology
Organizer: Julia Jones, Kevin McQuire, Georgianne Moore
Key participants: Barbara Bond, Kevin McGuire, Georgianne Moore (AND); Nathan Phillips (HFR); Alan Yeakley, Bruce Haines (CWT); Steve Pennings (GCE); Alan Covich (LUQ); Sherry Mitchell-Bruker (FCE); Iris Anderson, Jen Wu Stanhope (VCR) and others TBD
Workshop Report
Abstract: Eco-hydrology addresses the many linkages between water and ecosystem processes. The objectives of our workshop are to: (1) compare how the hydrologic cycle is coupled with ecological processes (NPP, carbon exchange, N cycling, etc.) across a range of contrasting ecosystem types (forests, scrub/desert, marine/tidal, urban, freshwater, snow and ice), and (2) forge small groups of researchers interested in pursuing inter-site eco-hydrology projects. The workshop will be in two parts, involving scientists and graduate students from as many LTER sites as possible. In the first part of the morning, invited 5-minute (3-overheads-worth) presentations will represent a particular discipline (e.g. biogeochemistry, eco-physiology, forest ecology, hydrology) and its relationship to ecohydrology, emphasizing how eco-hydrologic processes of interest to that discipline may vary across various ecosystems. Presenters represent forested, coastal, desert, grassland, snow and ice, and urban ecosystems. The second part of the morning will be a working session to plan future eco-hydrology research, specifically to identify topics and corresponding investigators, sites, and experiments to be undertaken by workshop participants. Research will be designed to test hypotheses about the effects of hydrology on ecosystem processes, and vice-versa. We welcome participants at all levels of engagement with eco-hydrology. Graduate student presentations and participation are strongly encouraged. Contact Julia Jones if you wish to present.
 
Title: LTER Education Outreach
Organizer: Steven McGee
Key participants: Sonia Ortega, Jess Zimmerman, Schoolyard LTER organizers at each site
Workshop Report
Abstract: This workshop will bring together the members coordinating educational activities at each LTER site. Participants will * share their experiences with the Schoolyard LTER program. * discuss ways that the Schoolyard LTER program can leverage from the GLOBE program and the Journey to El Yunque web site. * identify avenues for developing shared resources on teaching basic life concepts.
 
Title: LTER Network Research Initiative I. Altered water and nutrient cycles:
Organizer: Karen McGlathery
Key participants: Chris Madden, Dave Rudnick
Workshop Report
Abstract: As part of the LTER Strategic Planning activity, the Coordinating Committee has decided to develop a proposal for a planning grant to NSF to develop a long-term plan for cross-site and synthetic research. This effort is a major undertaking that is likely to determine the direction that the LTER Network will take over the next decade and perhaps beyond. The development of this proposal is an important step in augmenting site science, in formalizing LTER synthesis activities, and in determining the eventual composition of the LTER Network. This workshop is one of a series of workshops designed to identify and develop science themes for inclusion in the proposal. Each workshop will initiate a process to 1) define and refine the principle question appropriate to each theme, 2) develop the knowledge and leadership needed to address this question, 3) define the research required, and 4) prepare a mini-proposal (3 pages) for each theme that can be included in an LTER Network Planning Grant Proposal. Sample questions that might be addressed under this theme include (but are not limited to: How will future changes in land-use/land cover affect water quality and quantity at large spatial/temporal scales, and how will this affect ecological and socioeconomic patterns and processes? What are the ecological responses to increases in vigor of the hydrological cycle (e.g., more rainfall, more cloudiness, suppressed temperature extremes)? How has human alteration of biogeochemical cycles changed ecosystem pattern and process? Have changes in biogeochemical cycles affected human use and perception of natural ecosystems? What is the role of climate variability on the biogeochemistry of forested catchments? What implications do land use and land cover change have for biogeochemical fluxes in LTER Regions?
 
Title: LTER Network Research Initiative II. Biodiversity Losses
Organizer: Melinda Smith, David Foster
Key participants: Melinda Smith
Workshop Report
Abstract: As part of the LTER Strategic Planning activity, the Coordinating Committee has decided to develop a proposal for a planning grant to NSF to develop a long-term plan for cross-site and synthetic research. This effort is a major undertaking that is likely to determine the direction that the LTER Network will take over the next decade and perhaps beyond. The development of this proposal is an important step in augmenting site science, in formalizing LTER synthesis activities, and in determining the eventual composition of the LTER Network. This workshop is one of a series of workshops designed to identify and develop science themes for inclusion in the proposal. Each workshop will initiate a process to 1) define and refine the principle question appropriate to each theme, 2) develop the knowledge and leadership needed to address this question, 3) define the research required, and 4) prepare a mini-proposal (3 pages) for each theme that can be included in an LTER Network Planning Grant Proposal. Sample questions that might be addressed under this theme include (but are not limited to: What controls microbial diversity? What are the patterns of soil, sediment, and aquatic biodiversity across gradients? Is the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem function scale dependent or invariant? What effect do long-term changes in biodiversity have on community-level assembly and responses? Can we identify core species in a given ecosystem a priori? What are the long-term ecosystem and biogeochemical effects of removing an important species from an entire watershed/landscape?
 
Title: Network ecology, its applications to LTER, and the search for universal rules
Organizer: Robert Christian
Key participants: Bob Christian, Alan Covich, Jim Morris, Daryl Moorhead, Todd Crowl
Workshop Report
Abstract: Connections among components of ecosystems may be viewed as having the structure of a network. The flows that link components may be energy and matter (e.g., associated with food webs, elemental cycles or even water traveling down rivers) or information (e.g., associated with human or non-human interactions). But do ecological networks involving communication of different flows have common characteristics? This question has been addressed recently with some successful resolve, but the number of examples for empirical testing of universality has been limited. The LTER program has the potential to expand the diversity of networks for examination. This workshop is designed to synthesize results of LTER activities and other selected studies. It builds on several recent cross-site workshops on network analysis. A series of workshops was previously organized through the auspices of the LTER Network Office and the NSF Biocomplexity Initiative. We present results from these workshops and other studies that exemplify the diversity of ecological networks. The purpose of the workshop is four-fold to: (1) assess the status of activities in network ecology from these recent workshops, (2) assess the status of similar activities in other ecosystems, (3) continue development of a manuscript based on previous workshops, and (4) begin development of plans for future activities (e.g., proposals, workshops, manuscripts). We encourage participation of those who attended previous workshops, who have been involved in other network ecology studies, and who wish to learn more about the discipline.
 
Title: Predicting species responses to increased resource availability
Organizer: Katharine Suding
Key participants: Steven Pennings, Daniel Milchunas, Christopher Clark, Laura Gough, Katherine Gross, Scott Collins
Workshop Report
Abstract: When a N-limited system is fertilized, productivity increases and diversity generally declines, a pattern that many experiments at LTER sites demonstrate. This working group will address plant species responses related to this diversity-productivity shift: what functional groups increase in relative abundance, what species are lost, and how community structure and system characteristics interact with these changes. The workshop's format will consist of a limited series of talks followed by substantial discussion periods concerning conceptual frameworks and specific data analysis/modeling issues. The principle goals of this workshop will be to foster communication among scientists working on issues concerning species-resource dynamics and to advance an ongoing synthesis effort of N-addition experiments across LTER sites.
 
Title: Temporal variability: An intersite comparison of several key aspects.
Organizer: Mark Harmon; Timothy Kratz
Workshop Report
Abstract: Although the LTER network was established to examine long-term temporal trends, there has been surprisingly little comparison of key facets of temporal variability across sites. Aspects of temporal variability such as lags, modulation, and temporal cohesion (i.e., synchrony) are essential to understand to properly scale results both in time and well as space. However, to date more attention has been placed on understanding how to scale in space (probably driven by LTER regionalization efforts) than in time. Past intersite comparison may have been limited by lack of similar records at sites. The pioneering work of John Magnuson and others indicates that relative temporal variation allows a very diverse set of variables to be compared. This workshop will review results from Andrews and North Temperate Lakes on some of these phenomena and then start a discussion on how widely they occur and if there are any general mechanisms that will lead to general scaling rules that can be applied broadly.
 
Session III (Saturday PM)
Title: Ecosystem Modifications of Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Evolution by Soil Aggregates at LTER Sites
Organizer: Alvin Smucker
Key participants: Stuart Grandy, Heather Dopp, Eun-Jin Park, and others being contacted
Workshop Report
Abstract: Inter and intra-aggregate porosities influence many ecosystem processes by controlling influx and efflux rates of soil solutions containing nutrients, soluble carbon and nitrogen compounds, microbial communities, and soil gases. This working group will identify and discuss mechanisms within soil aggregates that could be used for cross comparison of C sequestration and GHG production at multiple LTER sites having a range of soil types and ecosystem management programs. The working group will also discuss biogeochemical processes that enhance the sequestration of C with lower risks of increasing GHG production. Workshop goals include the identification of: 1) best parameters for quantifying increased quantities and durations of soil C sequestration, 2) best management practices for reducing GHG production, 3) collaborating LTER sites. Projected products from the working group include the development and publication of soil structure methods beyond the LTER book, Standard Soil Methods for Long-Term Ecological Research. It is anticipated these methods and guidelines will be published in several professional journals. Discussion topics: 1) Identify rapid response methods for quantifying changes in soil C and GHG changes in soil. 2) Rapid analyses of active organic pools in soils. 3) Identification of soil aggregate fractions for best evaluation of GHG emissions. 4) Mechanical and hydraulic evaluations of soil aggregates 5) Rapid evaluations of C accumulations and bacterial communities in soil aggregates.
 
Title: Experimental design in the LTER network: incorporating the human element
Organizer: Diane Hope
Key participants: Steve Carpenter, Scott Collins, Peter Groffman, Chris Martin, Ann Kinzig, William Cook, William Freudenburg
Workshop Report
Abstract: The workshop will focus on experimental designs that incorporate the human element,including field plots, but also other approaches such as large-scale management experiments and social-science designs for addressing ecosystem change. The main aims will be: i) To synthesize existing approaches to experimental design across the LTER network, identify common methodologies & approaches, so as to draw up guidelines to inform new experimental work. ii) Identify important research questions which current LTER experimental work is not addressing, particularly inviting contributions from scientists outside the network. iii) Address the issue of how manipulative experimental approaches can/should be adapted to deal with human-dominated ecosystems - in particular to what extent can we draw on existing methodologies from horticultural & crop science experimental design and how do such classical approaches need to be modified in order to accommodate human decisions & behaviors. Participation from social scientists would hence also be very welcome. The intended products will be a short paper summarizing the results of the workshop, to be published in the primary literature, a summary of which will be made available to be posted to the LTER Network home page to help guide new experimental research design within the network & beyond.
 
Title: Exploring New Spatial and Temporal Scales in Ecology Using Wireless Sensor Networks
Organizer: John Porter
Key participants: John Porter, Peter Arzberger, Hen-Baiu King, William Michener, Stuart Gage, Paul Hanson
Workshop Report
Abstract: New avenues of ecological research are opened by recent developments in wireless networking. Wireless sensor networks have the potential to collect temporally-intensive and spatially-distributed data. Such networks also can expand the types of data available to ecologists (including image, video and audio). The goals of this workshop are: 1) To identify scientific research opportunities and areas enabled and opened up by wireless sensor networks; and 2) To exchange information on capabilities, techniques and technologies, and experiences for wireless sensor networks. The workshop organizers will strive to involve researchers who are not currently using wireless, but could greatly benefit from it. Content of the workshop will include a limited number of presentations from both U.S. and international scientists, coupled with panel and working-group discussions. Products of the workshop would include identification of future collaborations and how they might be advanced (mailing lists, web sites, papers, proposals); and production of a publication or other community resource that characterizes existing efforts that can be used as a tutorial for individuals wanting to initiate sensor networks.
 
Title: Exploring nitrogen dynamics in stream: Using models to scale up from headwaters reaches to stream networks
Organizer: Sherri Johnson
Key participants: Sherri Johnson, Steve Hamilton, Bruce Peterson, Jack Webster
Workshop Report
Abstract: Much research has occurred examining nitrogen dynamics in streams and riparian areas of LTER sites over years. Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment (LINX), where 15N ammonium was added to 8 of the LTER streams, provided a consistent platform for examining the fate of ammonium in small streams. Research on the fate of nitrate in small streams as a function of riparian/land use types is currently underway (LINX II). A looming challenge across all sites will be to synthesize and apply our understanding of nitrogen dynamics from headwater streams to larger and larger rivers and estuaries. In this workshop, we will begin by examining several current modeling strategies for nitrogen dynamics in streams. Process-based, rule-base and black box models have been used for reach scale simulations as well as for initial network models. Participants will discuss the assumptions and challenges involved in scaling up models and processes from headwaters to larger and larger systems. Several examples of nutrient concentrations in headwaters to large rivers will be examined to see to what extent we can predict longitudinal nitrogen concentrations from our hypotheses on the rates of uptake and transformation in streams with differing land uses. Hypotheses and lively discussion concerning how best to integrate reach-scale observations into network models will follow. We encourage participation by any one interested in this and further discussions of network based, process modeling of bio-reactive or conservative nutrients as a cross site activity.
 
Title: Historical Data as a Source for Studies of Landscape Change
Organizer: Myron Gutmann
Key participants: Myron Gutmann, William J. Parton, Kenneth Sylvester, Morgan Grove
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: Understanding historical land use is a key element in many studies of ongoing and future ecological change. In this workshop we will discuss several ongoing projects that make use of historical land use and other data -- generally drawn from the U.S. censuses of population and agriculture, and from USDA and state-level crop production statistics. In the workshop researchers experienced with this kind of work will discuss sources and their strengths and limitations, and report results that show the usefulness of research based on these sources.
 
Title: Information Technology for the Decade of Synthesis: Accessing Remote Sensing and GIS Data Through Web Services and 3D Visualization:
Organizer: Theresa Valentine
Key participants: Theresa Valentine (AND), Peter McCartney (CAP), John Campbell (HBR), Ken Ramsey (JRN)
Workshop Report
Abstract: One of the greatest challenges facing the LTER Network is how to support cross-site and cross-disciplinary synthesis. This workshop focuses on work being conducted by individual LTER sites, LTER partners, and collaborations to develop and publish GIS web services to aid researchers in the discovery, access, normalization, and visualization of remote sensing, GIS, and ecological data sets. These web services will provide a valuable set of tools for researchers conducting synthetic research by providing new ways of accessing, visualizing, and analyzing ecological data. Speakers: 1. Dr. Kate Beard-Tisdale, Chair, Dept. of Spatial Information Science & Engineering, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, University of Maine, will talk on GIS information integration using event/process level information. Her work on data quality covers metadata representation, management and tracking of errors in spatial databases, and various methods for visualizing and communicating data quality. 2. Peter McCartney , Central Arizona - Phoenix Urban LTER - Information Manager, presenting on their EML based approach to internet mapping at their new websites. The two technical points he will talk about are using EML measurement scale metadata to dynamically build map renderers and working with OpenGIS map services to share map images between web sites. 3. Barrie Collins, Coweeta LTER - Information Manager, review of the options for developing internet map services (pros and cons for the different technologies out there), with a look at how his site has approached serving spatial data on the web. 4. Dylan Keon, GIS Research Specialist at Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering (NACSE), presenting on his work providing web services (interactive mapping), with discussion on ideas on how this might work across sites within the LTER network (collaborative effort ideas). The last hour will be spent preparing and discussing recommendations to the Information Managers Group Meeting.
 
Title: Integrating Long-term Ecological Research and Data into Education
Organizer: Robert Bohanan
Key participants: Robert Bohanan, Peter McCartney, Karen Baker, Alan Berkowitz, and Sonia Ortega
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: LTER sites provide a continuum of diverse educational activities that include k-12 teachers and students, undergraduates, and graduate students. A panel will provide an overview of models and templates for educational activities and materials. Panel discussion will address the theme of 'integrating research and data in education'. We will explore and discuss the following questions: 1. What are the unique features and possibilities of integrating data into education? 2. How can data be used to augment environmental education? 3. What are the essential attributes of exemplary models of integrating data in teaching and learning? Panelists will provide case studies and examples such as LTER, GLOBE, NASA, NCEAS, Knowledge Network Project, and the digitial library community.
 
Title: Integration in Eco-hydrology 2
Organizer: Julia Jones
Key participants: Barbara Bond, Kevin McGuire, Georgianne Moore (AND)
Workshop Report
Abstract: Eco-hydrology addresses the many linkages between water and ecosystem processes. The purpose of this workshop is to understand how tightly the hydrologic cycle is coupled with ecological processes (NPP, carbon exchange, N cycling, etc.) across a range of different ecosystems. The proposed workshop will be in two parts, involving scientists and graduate students from as many LTER sites as possible. In Part I, invited presentations will review ongoing eco-hydrology research to emphasize how past research at LTER sites can lead the way in establishing a new research perspective that formally integrates ecological and hydrological processes. Part II will be a working session to plan future eco-hydrology research, specifically to identify topics and corresponding investigators, sites, and experiments to be undertaken by workshop participants. Research will be designed to test hypotheses about the effects of hydrology on ecosystem processes, and vice-versa. We welcome participants at all levels of engagement with eco-hydrology.
 
Title: Litter decomposition in the LTER Network: gaps and bridges to synthesis
Organizer: Grizelle Gonzalez, Whendee Silver, Jean Lodge
Key participants: Ingrid C. Burke, David C. Coleman, Grizelle González, Mark Harmon, D. Jean Lodge, John Moore, William J. Parton, Timothy R. Seastedt, Whendee Silver
Workshop Report
Abstract: The main objectives of the workshop are: 1) to present the "state" of decomposition research in the LTER Network, 2) identify the gaps in knowledge of data and study factors in sites within the LTER Network, and 3) identify "bridge" questions in an effort to start the process of synthesis given available data. The workshop will consist of four main sections: Introduction, Invited talks, Open discussion on research initiatives and summary remarks. Talk topics / titles are: 1:30-1:50 Use of LIDET Data to Test Litter Decomposition Models - W.J. Parton 1:50-2:10 Climate and Decomposition: Decoupling temperature from moisture effects - I. Burke 2:10-2:30 Advances in chemical aspects - M. Harmon 2:30-2:50 Is there a home-court advantage? - J. Lodge 2:50-3:00 Break 3:00-3:20 Big Questions in LTER Decomposition Synthesis--Do we have "Big" Data Sets to Match? - D. Coleman & T.R. Seastedt (Soil / litter organisms) 3:20-3:40 Modeling decay from an organismal perspective: Impacts of NPP and disturbance - J. Moore 3:40-4:00 Summary Overview 4:00-4:30 Open Discussion Each talk will be focused on the current state (e.g., What has been done? What questions have been answered and in which LTER Site (s)?), and the future (What are the questions that remain to be answered?) of the research topic as related to litter decay. An overview talk will combine the gaps and bridges in knowledge in terms of sites (biomes or regions?) and data as related to the pre-selected topics to stimulate further discussion on how we should move forward towards the synthesis of decomposition research in the LTER Network. We will explore whether we need new data to answer new questions. It is a goal to publish the information presented and compiled during the workshop.
 
Title: LTER Network Research Initiative III. Climate Change:
Organizer: Debra Peters, Bruce Hayden
Key participants: Debra Peters, Bruce Hayden
Workshop Report
Abstract: As part of the LTER Strategic Planning activity, the Coordinating Committee has decided to develop a proposal for a planning grant to NSF to develop a long-term plan for cross-site and synthetic research. This effort is a major undertaking that is likely to determine the direction that the LTER Network will take over the next decade and perhaps beyond. The development of this proposal is an important step in augmenting site science, in formalizing LTER synthesis activities, and in determining the eventual composition of the LTER Network. This workshop is one of a series of workshops designed to identify and develop science themes for inclusion in the proposal. Each workshop will initiate a process to 1) define and refine the principle question appropriate to each theme, 2) develop the knowledge and leadership needed to address this question, 3) define the research required, and 4) prepare a mini-proposal (3 pages) for each theme that can be included in an LTER Network Planning Grant Proposal. Sample questions that might be addressed under this theme include (but are not limited to: How will an increase in extreme events alter ecological pattern and process? How will a changing climate affect the connectedness of ecosystems? What is the role of sea-level rise in landscape/ecosystem evolution? How will climate change influence ecosystem/atmosphere feedbacks (e.g., gas flux, snow cover, water vapor, sensible heat exchanges) across gradients? How does geographic variation in climate give rise to variation in population dynamics, diversity, and ecosystem processes based on annual record from a variety of sites? How will climate change affect the sustainability of human socioeconomic systems that have developed in the different ecological systems represented in the LTER network?
 
Title: LTER Network Research Initiative IV. Coupled human-natural ecosystems:
Organizer: Ann Kinzig
Key participants: Anne Kinzig/Steve Garman
Workshop Report
Abstract: As part of the LTER Strategic Planning activity, the Coordinating Committee has decided to develop a proposal for a planning grant to NSF to develop a long-term plan for cross-site and synthetic research. This effort is a major undertaking that is likely to determine the direction that the LTER Network will take over the next decade and perhaps beyond. The development of this proposal is an important step in augmenting site science, in formalizing LTER synthesis activities, and in determining the eventual composition of the LTER Network. This workshop is one of a series of workshops designed to identify and develop science themes for inclusion in the proposal. Each workshop will initiate a process to 1) define and refine the principle question appropriate to each theme, 2) develop the knowledge and leadership needed to address this question, 3) define the research required, and 4) prepare a mini-proposal (3 pages) for each theme that can be included in an LTER Network Planning Grant Proposal. Sample questions that might be addressed under this theme include (but are not limited to: What have been the legacies of agricultural practices and other land uses for the ecological systems being studied in the LTER network? Conversely, what have been the legacies of the different ecological systems for agricultural practices and other land uses in their respective regions? What are the human issues that affect the biosphere and its management? What are the social, economic, and political factors that influence continental-scale ecological patterns and processes? What are the social, economic, political, and ecological factors that affect the adoption of sustainable land use practices?
 
Title: LTER Network Research Initiative V. Extinctions/ Invasions:
Organizer: Timothy Seastedt
Key participants: Tim Seastedt, Kate Suding
Workshop Report
Abstract: As part of the LTER Strategic Planning activity, the Coordinating Committee has decided to develop a proposal for a planning grant to NSF to develop a long-term plan for cross-site and synthetic research. This effort is a major undertaking that is likely to determine the direction that the LTER Network will take over the next decade and perhaps beyond. The development of this proposal is an important step in augmenting site science, in formalizing LTER synthesis activities, and in determining the eventual composition of the LTER Network. This workshop is one of a series of workshops designed to identify and develop science themes for inclusion in the proposal. Each workshop will initiate a process to 1) define and refine the principle question appropriate to each theme, 2) develop the knowledge and leadership needed to address this question, 3) define the research required, and 4) prepare a mini-proposal (3 pages) for each theme that can be included in an LTER Network Planning Grant Proposal. Sample questions that might be addressed under this theme include (but are not limited to: What are the effects of invasion, and how do the characteristics of successful invaders lead to observed effects? What are the causes and consequences of species invasions? (what features of communities make them susceptible and resistant to invasive species?) What are the impacts of species invasions and extinctions? What are background levels of species turnover? What roles have humans played in the introduction and relative success of invasive species?
 
Title: New methods in stable isotope applications for long term ecological research: molecular level characterizations.
Organizer: Stephen Macko
Key participants: Stephen Macko (VCR), William Anderson (FLE), Peggy Ostrom (KBS), Nathaniel Ostrom (KBS), Iris Anderson (VCR)
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: Recent developments in stable isotope technologies now allow for the determination of isotope compositions on individual molecular components. This working group will be highlighting the new techniques and technologies, as well as the novel applications of continuous flow stable isotope analysis. Applications to be discussed include, but are not limited to: analysis of nanomols of fatty acids and amino acids for deciphering food webs using essential compounds; tracking components of the carbon and nitrogen cycles; rapid analysis of microliter quantities of water for interpreting the hydrologic cycle; tracing global change and organic matter preservation through authentic compound determination or alteration.
 
Title: Temporal and spatial scales of coupling between human and ecological systems
Organizer: F. Chapin
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: One of the biggest challenges facing the LTER network is the integration of human and ecological processes in our understanding of the dynamics of the ecosystems that we study. One barrier to the effective integration of natural and social sciences is uncertainty of the temporal and spatial scales at which important human and ecological processes are coupled. Information at scales that are larger than the scale of coupling provides context; information at too small a scale appears as noise. How do we determine the appropriate scales to study particular classes of social-ecological interactions? We propose a workshop that discusses the scales of interactions between ecological and social variables and what social and ecological variables might be the likely candidates to examine? Based on this workshop, we will identify classes of interactions that are important at different temporal and spatial scales and which appear to be ripe for either cross-site research or cross-site synthesis. This workshop would be a logical precursor to the Garman workshop on complexity of coupled ecological-human interactions.
 
Title: Web site development - A collaborative approach
Organizer: Marshall White
Key participants: LTER Information Managers
Workshop Report - This workshop was a hand's-on workshop for idividuals during the ASM meeting.
Abstract: The LTER Network Office can help you take charge of your website by providing you with important resources and services. The purpose of this workshop is to introduce the LTER Information managers to the services provided by the LTER Network office in web site development. This workshop will focus on the existing services the Network Office has to offer, the services the Network Office is developing and to solicit ideas from the LTER community for future collaborative endeavors. The goal of this information filled workshop is to promote collaborative website development across the LTER network.
 
Title: When and how does structure affect function? - A discussion of structural constraints on processes at different LTER sites
Organizer: Tamara Hochstrasser, Jin Yao
Key participants: Co-Organizer: Jin Yao (jyao@nmsu.edu), TBA
Workshop Report
Abstract: It has long been recognized that structural characteristics of a system constrain the functional dynamics within the system. When comparing different LTER sites and levels of organization, it may be possible to identify similarities and differences in structural constraints on processes. In this workshop we are interested in identifying what structural constraints may limit processes that affect a system?s capacity to recover from stress or disturbances. For example, at the plant scale, different morphological traits in dominant plants at LTER sites may restrict their physiological function and growth. At the landscape scale, the comparison of the spatial distribution of patches with different vegetation composition, height and/or standing biomass between LTER sites may also help explain differences in landscape fluxes, such as the redistribution of water and the dispersal of propagules at these sites. Identifying similarities and differences in these structural constraints between systems and scales could be an important step for increasing our predictive capacity concerning the consequences of climate change or human disturbances. In this workshop - for which we encourage the participation of graduate students and postdocs - we would like to compare research on structural constraints on ecological processes at a range of scales and in different systems. These illustrations will help workshop participants to discuss how structure and function are interrelated in their own study systems and allow for planning future collaborative research across LTER sites. A desired outcome of the workshop would be to come up with an operative classification of structural constraints across scales and in different systems.
 
Session IV (Sunday AM)
Title: A Future Vision for Enabling Information Technologies for LTER Science 1
Organizer: William Michener
Key participants: Chaitan Baru (SDSC), Barbara Benson (NTL), James Brunt (NET), Stuart Gage (KBS), Mark Gahegan (Penn State), Mark Harmon (AND), Don Henshaw (AND), Alan Knapp (KNZ), Peter McCartney (CAP), William Michener (NET), Deana Pennington (NET), Tom Prudhomme (NCSA), Wade Sheldon (GCE), Sylvia Spengler (NSF), Kristin Vanderbilt (SEV)
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: As we embark on a decade of synthesis it is critical that we take advantage of appropriate enabling information technologies. Concomitantly, we have a wonderful opportunity to help shape the future information technologies that can better enable LTER synthesis. This day-long workshop has four complimentary parts. First, three LTER scientists will offer a compelling vision for the information technologies that are required to enable LTER science (e.g., synthesis, broad-scale in situ and remote sensing, and broad-scale modeling). Second, four LTER ecoinformaticians will present brief descriptions of currently available and progressing information technology tools that can meet current and future scientific needs. Third, leading edge information technology researchers from the supercomputer centers and academic community will present their vision for emerging information technologies. Finally, a moderated roundtable discussion will attempt to reconcile the scientific and information technology visions.
 
Title: Application of Remote Sensing Techniques in the Long Term Ecological Research
Organizer: Wei Wu
Key participants: Wei Wu
Workshop Report
Abstract: LTER projects have traditionally focused on ?on the ground? projects for a few locations. Increasingly, the investigators are expanding their analysis through the development of spatial models. Remote sensing is a very useful tool in ecological modeling since the imagery covers large areas and can provide estimates at very high resolution. At the same time, it has its own limitations, for example, it is expensive to purchase certain remote sensing images, time is fixed when the satellite images are taken, the satellite images in many geographic locations are often contaminated with clouds, atmosphere correction procedures are complicated and are often only approximate, the data formats obtained on the sensor are not ready to use except thermal mapper images. This working group will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using remote sensing images to derive the physical, chemical and ecological phenomena: primary productivity, evapotranspiration, leaf nitrogen content, surface temperature, land cover etc. This work group will also discuss the technique used to identify clouds in the imagery and interpolate the data under the clouds, other technique difficulties during the modeling processes, the choice of empirical models to convert remote sensed data to the ground information, sampling techniques that can help field work undertake validation, the statistical methods that can help determine the accuracy of the results from remote sensed data, and the possibility of sharing remote sensed data in LTER network. The principal goal of the working group is to exchange experience and make better use of remote sensed data in the LTER The expected product from the working group is a report about the discussion and an article in a journal like ?remote sensing of environment?.
 
Title: Case Studies in Short-term Collaborative Research
Organizer: Kristin Gade
Key participants: Darrel Jenerette, Hoski Schaafsma
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: This workshop will examine social-ecological collaborations that take place on shorter time scales (6 months to 2 years from start to finish). Some of the biggest challenges in interdisciplinary research are developing a shared language and common goal for the research. How can these challenges be addressed in short time frames, such as during the tenure of a PhD student or postdoc? Presenters from various sites will describe results from specific research projects and review the challenges associated with collaborative research in newly formed groups. After the presentations, there will be a panel-audience discussion. Several recent publications in the journal Ecosystems have examined interdisciplinary challenges from the perspective of senior scientists. One of the expected products of this workshop is a manuscript describing these challenges from a graduate student perspective.
 
Title: Development of coupled hydrological-biogeochemical models of materials transport at the landscape scale
Organizer: John Melack
Key participants: John Melack, Ed Beighley
Workshop Report
Abstract: This workshop will continue discussions initiated at the 2000 ASM on the state-of-the art and future directions for a broad class of models that include GIS-based, surface water flow & transport, and spatially articulate ecosystem-based approaches. Of particular interest is the development of models that will couple physics, chemistry & biology to understand materials transport and transformation at the landscape scale. We encourage participation of researchers interested in modeling transport through riparian zones, riverine networks and estuaries. Another task will be to identify types of data acquisition needed to successfully calibrate and validate the next generation of coupled models.
 
Title: Infectious diseases across the LTER Network
Organizer: Michael Antolin
Key participants: Bob Parmenter (SEV), John Porter (VCR), Nancy Moncrief (VCR), Ray Dueser (VCR), Mike Erwin (VCR), Michael Sheppard (GCE), Amanda Wrona (GCE), Pieter Johns (NTL)
Workshop Report
Abstract: Hardly a day passes without some news of an emerging or introduced infectious disease that threatens health of plants and animals, and the ecosystems that depend upon them. A looming challenge is to predict how disease spreads and how it maintains itself in the environment, especially in wild populations. These kinds of ecological questions are the focus of several research groups of the LTER network, in local collaborations with the local wildlife or natural heritage scientists, the U.S. Geological Survey, state and federal departments of agriculture, and the Centers for Disease Control. In this workshop we hope that researchers will share 1.) Which diseases have emerged or have been introduced into their sites, 2.) What long-term data are available to help initiate more detailed epidemiological modeling (e.g. distributions, densities, and movement of organisms), 3.) Which kinds of epidemiological models best describe the influence of infectious diseases on ecosystem processes, 4.) What tools are available for creating analytical and predictive models of disease spread and persistence? We will describe two wildlife disease projects (plague, Hantavirus) that may provide frameworks for research and for training the next generation of ecological epidemiologists.
 
Title: International Research Collaboration Best Practices
Organizer: Alan Schroeder
Key participants: Alan Schroeder, Hen-Biau King, Jim Gosz, Bob Waide, ILTER network representatives
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: The international LTER network faces the challenge of increasing cross-national research collaboration. This workshop will focus on analyzing successful international research collaborations, the factors that made these collaborations successful, and ideas for extending these factors into mechanisms for increasing collaboration. The workshop product will be a report outlining best practices and a plan for implementing these practices.
 
Title: Long-term effects of land-use change on carbon and water balance in landscapes and ecosystems: Planning for inter-site analysis and synthesis
Organizer: Olga Krankina
Key participants: Olga Krankina, Mark Harmon, Jim Fourqurean, Ted Gragson, Paul Bolstad, Jurai Hresko, Jess Zimmerman, Terry Parr, David Wear
Workshop Report
Abstract: Common patterns are emerging among many sites in the US and International LTER networks that examine long-term changes in land use. Many sites report expansion of forest cover that started decades or even centuries ago and in many cases continues at present. In addition, expanding urban areas play an increasing role in landcover. These and other changes in land use cause distinct and long-lasting impacts on carbon and water balance of landscapes and ecosystems. Understanding and quantifying these effects on a large set of LTER sites will help assess their global implications. The workshop will identify and discuss ideas for potential inter-site comparison and synthesis, explore approaches to quantifying change in carbon and water balance in response to change in land use, and formulate science questions to be addressed. Presentations on the possible common framework for comparisons will be followed by open discussion. Projected products from the workshop include a plan for Inter-Site Analysis and Synthesis of Long-Term Effects of Land-Use Change on Carbon and Water Balance in Landscapes and Ecosystems and establishment of a working group of interested participants including representatives from ILTER.
 
Title: LTER Network Research Initiative VI. Engineered/Designed ecosystems:
Organizer: Daniel Childers, Kay Gross
Key participants: Dan Childers, Kay Gross
Workshop Report
Abstract: As part of the LTER Strategic Planning activity, the Coordinating Committee has decided to develop a proposal for a planning grant to NSF to develop a long-term plan for cross-site and synthetic research. This effort is a major undertaking that is likely to determine the direction that the LTER Network will take over the next decade and perhaps beyond. The development of this proposal is an important step in augmenting site science, in formalizing LTER synthesis activities, and in determining the eventual composition of the LTER Network. This workshop is one of a series of workshops designed to identify and develop science themes for inclusion in the proposal. Each workshop will initiate a process to 1) define and refine the principle question appropriate to each theme, 2) develop the knowledge and leadership needed to address this question, 3) define the research required, and 4) prepare a mini-proposal (3 pages) for each theme that can be included in an LTER Network Planning Grant Proposal. Sample questions that might be addressed under this theme include (but are not limited to: Under what conditions can restoration trajectories be modeled as the inverse of degradation trajectories? Can ecosystem restoration be catalyzed? What are the limits to ecosystem restoration and rehabilitation? Can we engineer or rehabilitate ecosystems to solve complex environmental problems?
 
Title: LTER Network Research Initiative VII. Forecasting Landscape Change:
Organizer: Stan Gregory
Key participants: Stan Gregory
Workshop Report
Abstract: As part of the LTER Strategic Planning activity, the Coordinating Committee has decided to develop a proposal for a planning grant to NSF to develop a long-term plan for cross-site and synthetic research. This effort is a major undertaking that is likely to determine the direction that the LTER Network will take over the next decade and perhaps beyond. The development of this proposal is an important step in augmenting site science, in formalizing LTER synthesis activities, and in determining the eventual composition of the LTER Network. This workshop is one of a series of workshops designed to identify and develop science themes for inclusion in the proposal. Each workshop will initiate a process to 1) define and refine the principle question appropriate to each theme, 2) develop the knowledge and leadership needed to address this question, 3) define the research required, and 4) prepare a mini-proposal (3 pages) for each theme that can be included in an LTER Network Planning Grant Proposal. Sample questions that might be addressed under this theme include (but are not limited to: Can we visualize the environments of the LTER sites in 50-100 years? What is the role of legacies (biological, land use) for structuring ecological systems and landscapes? What is the relative importance of local (e.g., lake nutrients) versus distant (e.g., acid rain) drivers in ecosystem structure and function? Is this changing over time? How can we use small-scale experiments and process studies to predict regional and global responses to environmental change? How do landscape stability, transitions, vulnerability, and resilience vary among LTER Regions?
 
Title: Species richness in space and time
Organizer: William Lauenroth, Peter Adler, Ethan White
Key participants: Peter Adler, Debra Peters, Scott Collins
Workshop Report
Abstract: While we are all familiar with species-area relationships, few of us have experience with species-time relationships. These are analogous to species-area relationships except here we ask how the number of species we observe changes as the observation time gets longer. We recently analyzed data from two grassland sites in Kansas, one the Konza LTER site, and discovered that, at spatial scales that can be sampled in the field, the slope of the time relationship in log-log space is as steep as or steeper than the slope of the corresponding area relationship for that site. This finding has important basic and applied implications and suggests that single year species counts may not be as informative as we may have assumed. Our objective for the workshop is to initiate discussion within the long-term research community of species-time-area relationships. Specifically, we hope that other researchers will have data and results to share and interest in the possibility of initiating a set of long-term observations that will lead to a better understanding of how space and time interact to determine species number. The format of the workshop will be a small number of talks that we will solicit from LTER sites followed by discussion.
 
Title: Strategic Planning, Evaluation and Current Issues in LTER Education 1
Organizer: Sonia Ortega
Key participants: LTER Education Committee: Robert Bohanan, Stephanie Bestlemeyer, Diane Ebert-May, Susan Steiner, Elena Sparrow, David Smith, Alan Berkowitz, Monica Elser, John Moore, Patty Sprott, Jim Gosz, Valerie Wright, David Kirschtel
Workshop Report
Abstract: The integration of education and research at LTER sites allows for unique approaches to training of future researchers and to learning and teaching ecological concepts. This day-long workshop will be organized in two parts: 1) A morning session will be devoted to the discussion of the LTER Education Strategic Plan and how it fits within the overall Network Strategic Plan, it will explore possible ways to assess/evaluate education programs at each site, and will report on a recent education workshop at Konza Prairie. 2) The afternoon session will have small groups discussing specific education issues such as the development of a framework for LTER education, use of instructional materials, identification of unique characteristics of LTER to increase human diversity and development of education-related products (biomes, fact sheets, handbook). This session will bring together LTER Education Representatives and will welcome the participation of other LTER attendees at ASM.
 
Title: The future of cross-site climate research in LTER: a planning workshop
Organizer: Doug Goodin
Key participants: LTER Climate Committee members
Workshop Report
Abstract: Publication of the LTER-sponsored volume Climate Variability and Ecosystem Response represents the culmination of over ten years of investigation and synthesis of the effects of climatic forcing on various aspects of ecosystem response as observed at LTER sites. The Climate Variability and Ecosystem Response (CVER) project involved 37 LTER researchers from 14 sites. The 21 chapters in the CVER volume describe how climate and ecosystems interact at time scales ranging from short term (i.e. daily/weekly) to century/millennial. Many of the chapters were specific to a single site, but some considered climate/ecosystem interactions at multiple sites or across the entire network. It is a goal of the LTER Climate Committee to build on the success of the CVER project by initiating a new climate research program, emphasizing cross-site and network-wide science questions and supporting the current emphasis within LTER on cross-site synthesis research. This proposed workshop is a planning session intended to facilitate discussion and ?brainstorming? among members of the Climate Committee and other LTER researchers interested in cross-site climatic research. The goal of the workshop will be to define a set of one or more ?big questions? in climate/ecosystem science which can be addressed by exploiting the unique nature of the LTER network. Discussion in the workshop will include (but not be limited to); defining cross-site research questions, locating sources of funding to support this synthetic research, organization and leadership of the program, and the role of the Climate Committee in facilitating this research. Projected products of the workshop include a report to the LTER Coordinating and Executive Committees. Although we do not expressly intend to produce a publication, it is possible that our discussion may result in a manuscript describing the history of climate research in LTER and outlining the need and opportunity for cross-site research.
 
Title: The interaction of changing climate and disturbance regimes
Organizer: F. Chapin, John Yarie
Key participants: John Yarie, Monica Turner, David Foster, Fred Swanson
Workshop Report
Abstract: Disturbance is a fundamental component of ecosystem function of all ecosystems. Most ecosystems are at some phase of recovery from multiple past disturbance events. In addition, the structure and functioning of ecosystems strongly influences the potential disturbance regime. Recognition of the critical role played by disturbance is essential to interpretation of any long-term data sets on the structure or functioning of ecosystems. There has, however, been no comprehensive comparison of disturbance regimes among a broad array of ecosystems such as those represented by the LTER network. Such a survey could identify the ecological factors that account for variation in the frequency, severity, and size of disturbances that characterize different ecosystems. The purpose of this workshop is to initiate a cross-site comparison of climate-disturbance interactions among LTER sites by determining the major disturbance types at each LTER site, the size distributions and return intervals of these disturbances, the climatic factors influencing the frequency and severity of disturbance, and the ecological consequences of disturbance. This workshop is a logical followup to the workshop documenting scales of variability of disturbances (Rusak and Turner).
 
Session V (Sunday PM)
Title: A Future Vision for Enabling Information Technologies for LTER Science 2
Organizer: William Michener
Key participants: Chaitan Baru (SDSC), Barbara Benson (NTL), James Brunt (NET), Stuart Gage (KBS), Mark Gahegan (Penn State), Mark Harmon (AND), Don Henshaw (AND), Alan Knapp (KNZ), Peter McCartney (CAP), William Michener (NET), Deana Pennington (NET), Tom Prudhomme (NCSA), Wade Sheldon (GCE), Sylvia Spengler (NSF), Kristin Vanderbilt (SEV)
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: As we embark on a decade of synthesis it is critical that we take advantage of appropriate enabling information technologies. Concomitantly, we have a wonderful opportunity to help shape the future information technologies that can better enable LTER synthesis. This day-long workshop has four complimentary parts. First, three LTER scientists will offer a compelling vision for the information technologies that are required to enable LTER science (e.g., synthesis, broad-scale in situ and remote sensing, and broad-scale modeling). Second, four LTER ecoinformaticians will present brief descriptions of currently available and progressing information technology tools that can meet current and future scientific needs. Third, leading edge information technology researchers from the supercomputer centers and academic community will present their vision for emerging information technologies. Finally, a moderated roundtable discussion will attempt to reconcile the scientific and information technology visions.
 
Title: Bird communities in changing ecosystems: understanding human impacts in a broader ecological and socioeconomic framework
Organizer: Madhusudan Katti
Key participants: Charlie Nilon, John Marzluff, John Thomlinson, Robert Waide, Paige Warren
Workshop Report - No Report Available
Abstract: Birds are among the most frequently used vertebrate indicators in terrestrial ecological monitoring programs. Various LTER sites have been monitoring bird communities in different ecosystems, most of them subject to strong human influences. This workshop will address the ecological and evolutionary changes in bird communities resulting from human impacts. Building upon the cross-site comparative bird studies between CAP and BES, we have the opportunity to develop broader collaborations among colleagues working across different ecosystems where birds have been monitored for longer periods. Key issues to be addressed by this workshop include: i) potential for synthesis of cross-site data, starting with issues of standardization of protocols and databases; ii) identifying current and emerging trends in bird populations and communities; iii) identifying key human influences and ways to better address them in a broader ecological-socioeconomic framework. The workshop will provide a basis for future development of theoretical and empirical approaches that synthesize across ecological and social science disciplines to understand long-term changes in natural communities under human influence. Our goal is also to publish the results of such synthesis in the primary literature.
 
Title: Impacts of exotic forest insect invasives on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem structure and function
Organizer: Brian Kloeppel
Key participants: Brian Kloeppel, David Foster, Jack Webster
Workshop Report
Abstract: **This workshop has been incorporated with the workshop by Seastedt et al. (#5 on Friday PM - Current and Future LTER Research on Invasive Species Issues). **This worksop will not meet on Sunday PM. Exotic forest insect invasives have frequently impacted terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the past resulting in devastating ecosystem and financial impacts. In most cases little information or time was available to collect data to evaluate ecosystem impacts with pre-outbreak conditions. The LTER Network now has access to surveys and databases and an infrastructure to measure some key response variables that assist scientists in predicting and measuring ecosystem response to these perturbations. Past forest disease impacts such as chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) that reached its apex in the 1930s and Dutch elm disease (Ceratocystis ulmi) that reached its apex in the 1970s suggest the key variables to measure impacts of an exotic invasive on forest and aquatic ecosystems. The legacy of these invasives include species conversions and inputs of coarse woody debris that are still observed in the 2000s. The current outbreak of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) in eastern North America and the ongoing outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in eastern and midwestern North America affect or threaten the ecosystems at numerous LTER sites. These exotic invasives provide the opportunity for more integrated collaboration between aquatic and terrestrial ecologists. Current and proposed studies need further discussion and resources to better understand the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem impacts and to predict, manage, and document the impacts on ecosystem structure and function.
 
Title: Interdisciplinary Studies and Remote Sensing
Organizer: J. Morgan Grove
Key participants: William L. Stefanov, J. Morgan Grove, Anthony Brazel, Sharon Harlan, Mary Cadenasso, Steward Pickett, Austin Troy
Workshop Report
Abstract: Remote sensing (RS) can provide an effective foundation for interdisciplinary studies in several ways. Remote sensing is a critical element to time-series and multi-spatial scale analyses. It provides a foundation for meshing different disciplinary perspectives addressing a single problem. RS offers novel analytical techniques that can amplify existing disciplinary approaches. This workshop will discuss how new satellite-based remote sensing instruments such as MODIS, ASTER, and IKONOS offer a wide variety of datasets and opportunities to integrate traditional studies of surficial materials and processes (geology, ecology, biology, climatology) with human social drivers of ecosystem change. Our working group will first present the basics of remote sensing and discuss the available datasets and data products ? including what you need to work with the data. Second, we will present examples of ongoing interdisciplinary studies that use remotely sensed data and discuss how the use of these data facilitated interdisciplinary research by informing the questions asked, the data used, and the analyses applied. The principal goals of this workshop will be to expand the awareness of available datasets, stimulate thinking on what remotely sensed data can provide to ongoing and planned interdisciplinary investigations, and demonstrate how this has been done successfully. Expected products from the workshop will include a web page with a summary of the discussions and an article in a journal such as Bioscience, International Journal of Remote Sensing, or a Letter to Science.
 
Title: International LTER Strategic Planning Workshop
Organizer: James Gosz
Key participants: Jim Gosz, Bob Waide, ILTER network representatives
Workshop Report
Abstract: The International LTER Network consists of 25 countries including the US. An ILTER Network Committee meets annually to discuss/plan activities for the network and vote on requests to be admitted to the ILTER Network. This workshop will discuss support for the Network office function of ILTER and have a presentation by the NSF International Program on their proposal for how the NSF will support the activities of the ILTER Network in the near term. The workshop will begin the strategic planning needed to move the ILTER Network into a new level of interaction and integration. Priority areas will be developed for the needs of ILTER Network countries. Long-term planning will be needed to identify how the network will continue to acquire support for its activities.
 
Title: Microbial community analysis with an eye towards synthesis
Organizer: Anthony Yannarell
Key participants: James Hollibaugh, Frederick Rainey, Pat Schloss, John Hobbie
Workshop Report
Abstract: With the development of new biotechnologies, studies of microbial communities have flourished in the last few decades. This is an opportune moment to assess the progress and future direction of microbial ecology. This workshop will focus on the design and implementation of microbial community studies that are intended to facilitate a broader synthesis within microbial ecology. Invited speakers will briefly present their visions for synthetic studies. Breakout groups will then be formed to discuss a variety of issues related to synthesis. These include the identification of the key synthetic questions in microbial ecology, the development of cross-site microbial studies, and the relationship between microbial species identity and function. The ultimate goal of this workshop is to foster collaborations and to provide the kernel for a position paper outlining a vision for synthetic microbial community ecology. Graduate students are especially encouraged to participate.
 
Title: Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic environments: biogeochemical importance and analytical approaches for the LTER program.
Organizer: Rudolf Jaffe
Key participants: Rudolf Jaffé, Diane McKnight, Nagamitsu Maie
Workshop Report
Abstract: The importance of dissolved organic matter in biogeochemical and ecological processes in aquatic environments has clearly been established. However, understanding the role of DOM is difficult if DOM is treated as a single biogeochemical parameter, and not characterized with enough resolution to detect the influence of different sources and processes. DOM (DOC and DON) consists of a quite complex mixture of organic compounds derived from terrestrial and aquatic sources. The assessment of these sources, its transformations, transport and ultimately its environmental fate is strongly dependent on the chemical characteristics. While identification of individual components can be accomplished for only a small percentage of the DOM, a range of chemical characterization approaches, such as spectroscopic characterization and molecular weight distribution, can be applied to whole DOM or major DOM fractions. Unfortunately, such chemical characteristics often remain unknown due to the fact that analytical methods used can be complex, time consuming and expensive. However, the molecular level data that can be generated may be invaluable in explaining DOM dynamics, its function in the microbial loop, and its overall biogeochemical role in a particular ecosystem. This workshop is intended as a venue to present participants with presently on-going DOM characterization studies at different LTER sites, exchange methods and expertise in DOM analyses, and identify present and future needs for such characterizations as a tool for the better assessment of biogeochemical and ecological processes in the LTER program.
 
Title: Obtaining and Exploiting Historical Imagery
Organizer: Bruce Hayden, John Porter
Workshop Report
Abstract: The goals of this workshop are to facilitate exchanges of information and ideas between LTER sites on sources and techniques for exploiting historical imagery and to develop strategies for enhancing the use of such imagery. The format of the workshop will be a round-table discussion. Participants with experience with imagery ("haves") are encouraged to bring to the workshop brief examples that demonstrate the utility of imagery, along with information on sources and resources that might be useful to other sites. Participants without much experience ("have nots") are encouraged to brainstorm on potential uses at their sites and to identify obstacles that have prevented their use of imagery in the past. Issues that we anticipate will be addressed at the workshop include locating and gaining access to imagery (data discovery), media and sensors (e.g., aerial photos, LIDAR, radar), image interpretation, ground truth, scaling up, development of archives and linking imagery to modeling and GIS. Products resulting from the workshop will be defined by the workshop itself, but may include research proposals, development of web resources and databases and ongoing working groups.
 
Title: Rapid Climate Change at High Latitudes and Altitudes
Organizer: Hugh Ducklow
Key participants: Any interested LTER Sites and persons
Workshop Report - This workshop was canceled - Hugh was unable to travel due to Hurricane Isabel
Abstract: LTER sites form a compelling set of climate and biotic gradients affording good opportunity for comparative study. Palmer, Antarctica is experiencing very rapid change which appears to be driven by a regional scale feedback between decreasing sea ice cover and lower-atmosphere warming. Are the changes we see at Palmer reflected at other high-latitude sites with lower (or higher) rates of warming? Are there similar changes at high altitude sites? As climate changes and warming migrates toward higher latitudes and altitudes, ecosystems will respond in as-yet unknown ways. The Ecosystem Migration Hypothesis suggests alternative predictions about how ecosystem responses will be structured. Our workshop could avaluate this hypothesis as a paradigm for guiding cross-site research within the LTER Network.
 
Title: Strategic Planning, Evaluation and Current Issues in LTER Education 2
Organizer: Sonia Ortega
Key participants: LTER Education Committee: Robert Bohanan, Stephanie Bestlemeyer, Diane Ebert-May, Susan Steiner, Elena Sparrow, David Smith, Alan Berkowitz, Monica Elser, John Moore, Patty Sprott, Jim Gosz, Valerie Wright, David Kirschtel
Workshop Report
Abstract: The integration of education and research at LTER sites allows for unique approaches to training of future researchers and to learning and teaching ecological concepts. This day-long workshop will be organized in two parts: 1) A morning session will be devoted to the discussion of the LTER Education Strategic Plan and how it fits within the overall Network Strategic Plan, it will explore possible ways to assess/evaluate education programs at each site, and will report on a recent education workshop at Konza Prairie. 2) The afternoon session will have small groups discussing specific education issues such as the development of a framework for LTER education, use of instructional materials, identification of unique characteristics of LTER to increase human diversity and development of education-related products (biomes, fact sheets, handbook). This session will bring together LTER Education Representatives and will welcome the participation of other LTER attendees at ASM.