List of Proposed Workshop Titles 


CS-1 Title: Developing international science collaborations through long-term ecological research. 

Organizers: Frances Li (NSF) and Ian Simpson (ECN-UK) 

The International Long Term Ecological Research Network began at a summit meeting at the LTER All Scientist's Meeting in 1993. Since that time, 21 countries have developed research networks devoted to long-term ecological investigations. Six regional networks of countries have developed around common ecological themes and issues: North America, East Asia and Pacific, Central and South America, Central Europe, Western Europe, and Middle East. These regional networks, and indeed the global network of LTER sites, provide an important opportunity to address ecological issues at scales ranging from the individual site to the globe. The challenge of this meeting is to develop meaningful experiments and measurements that can be a performed across sites and regions. Presentations by representatives of the regional networks will lead into a discussion of priorities in developing cross-site research agendas.  

CS-2 Title: Network analysis for cross site comparisons.

Organizer: Bob Christian (VCR) 

Abstract: Ecological network analysis is a group of algorithms for the assessment of flow networks.  These networks can be represented as box and arrow diagrams of material or energy processing.  These can be static or derived from dynamic simulation.  The analyses are particularly useful in assessing indirect relationships and systems-level attributes.  The techniques have been applied to numerous marine ecosystems for both trophodynamics and nutrient cycling.  The workshop will provide information on the use of network analysis and discuss opportunities for its use as a site comparison tool. 

CS-3 Title: Organizing and managing long-term, interdisciplinary research projects: models from the LTER Network. 

Organizer: Robert Waide (NET) 

Abstract: Sites in the LTER Network have used a range of organizational models to maintain enthusiasm and scientific productivity in projects with long life spans.  This workshop will identify and discuss the merits of different management models and search for common approaches to developing a successful program.  The workshop will also discuss frequently encountered problems and possible solutions to these problems, including: defining your critical mass; balancing site, cross-site, and network activities; facilitating integration of sub-projects; and doing more with less. The principal goals of the workshop are to share expertise among members of the LTER community and to facilitate smooth transitions in leadership. Projected products from the workshop include a web page with a summary of the discussions and an article in a journal such as 

CS-4 Title: Cross-site research and collaborative research.

Organizer: Stephanie Madson (CWT) and Mitch Pavao-Zuckerman (CWT)  

Science has never been done in a vacuum and that has never been more true than today. As we work to understand the "whole ecosystem", whether at a plot, stand, watershed or landscape level, collaborative research is a must. While face-to-face communication cannot be beat, the advent of email, the World Wide Web and electronic conferencing has facilitated collaborative research more than ever before. The purpose of this workshop is to address the pros and cons of collaborative research, how to incorporate a research project into a collaborative program, and to discuss cross-site and international research opportunities for graduate students. Panelists will includes students and post-docs who will discuss their experiences carrying out cross-site research within the US, as well as internationally through the ILTER program. Funding opportunities for graduate students and post-docs to do cross-site and collaborative research will also be discussed. 


DM-1 Title:  The partnership between long-term ecological research and information management:  Successes and challenges. 

Organizers:  Barbara Benson (NTL), Dick Olson (DACC-ORNL), John Magnuson (NTL) 

Title: The Partnership between Long-term Ecological Research and Information Management: Successes and Challenges Organizers: Barbara Benson (NTL), Dick Olson (DACC-ORNL), John Magnuson (NTL) Since the establishment of the LTER network and partly because of its existence, ecology has shifted from the traditional study of a site or an event by an individual to a much broader approach that includes networks of sites and communities of investigators carrying out modeling, synthesis, assessments, and long-term ecological research. A key factor in this fundamental change is the dramatic increase in the application of computer science to ecology. This workshop is designed to generate a productive dialogue among scientific researchers and information managers. Invited speakers will set the stage by presenting an overview of successful partnerships between ecological research and information management. We will distill the crucial components of successful information management both at individual sites and for intersite research. As information technology continues to evolve and the research agenda broadens, new challenges will need to be met by the partnership. We will attempt to articulate what these areas of growth will be. Projected products from this workshop include a web page with a summary of discussions and possibly a summary article in a journal such as Bioscience.

The workshop will be structured as two panel discussions each introduced by a guest speaker. The first panel will focus on the components of successful synergistic partnerships between scientific researchers and information managers. The catalyst speaker is Bill Michener (NSF) and panelists are John Helly (SDSC), John Magnuson (NTL), and Susan Stafford (Colorado State Unviersity). The second panel will focus on big science partnerships and the new areas of challenge. The catalyst speaker is Bruce Hayden (VCR) and panelists are Peter Arzberger (SDSC), James Brunt (NET), and Jim Gosz (SEV). The discussions will include audience participation, and the workshop will include time for generating conclusions and recommendations.  

DM-2 Title: Advanced communications and networking: Opportunities and challenges for LTER/ILTER.

Organizers: Bill Chang (NSF), Tony Fountain (SDSC), and John Vande Castle (NET) 

This Panel Discussion focuses on the opportunities and challenges that advanced communications and networking bring to LTER/ILTER community. Advanced Internet and information technologies (IT) have redefined our lives. They influence everything we do and will change how we, as scientists, conduct our research, communicate our findings, educate our students, and serve our communities. Short (10-15 minutes) presentations following by panel discussion will cover the following topics. 

  1. Wireless Data Acquisition and Communication - Dave Hughes (Old Colorado City Communications) 
  2. Laboratory and Field Station Networking Advances - (To be invited) 
  3. Regional and National Networking vBNS/I2 and Beyond - John Jamison (STAR-TAP/Juniper) 
  4. Integrated Data Management and Analysis - Reagon Moore (SDSC) 
  5. Potential LTER/ILTER Applications of these Advances - Tony Fountain (SDSC/LTER) 
  6. Challenges and Bottlenecks - John Vande Castle (NET) 

DM-3 Title: Ecological informatics: Innovative tools and technologies. 

Organizers:  Hap Garritt (PIE) and John Porter (VCR) 

This workshop will provide introductions to new technologies that can aid in the input, management and analysis of ecological information resources. A panel of experts will provide information on innovative applications of new technologies and answer questions from workshop participants. Where feasible, demonstrations will be available for hands-on testing by workshop participants. Topics to be addressed include: display and query of LTER Network data resources, wireless networking, linking bar code and GPS technologies, data modeling tools, micro data loggers, network collaboration technologies, voice recognition and implementing webcams. 

DM-4 Title: The LTER Network Information System and beyond. 

Organizer: Peter McCartney (CAP) 

Biological informatics is evolving in an environment of rapid technological change.  Some of the challenges facing us are scaling our data management infrastructure to accommodate the sheer quantity of data that will be generated in the decades to come, improving access to heterogeneous data sources, and developing more intelligent applications that make data more usable for the diverse array of end-user communities. This workshop examines some of the current efforts by the LTER team to build a Network Information System for integrating data across the LTER sites. It then looks at several new projects both within and without the LTER network that compliment and expand the NIS goals through new technologies such as machine-parsable metadata, knowledge-based software design, advanced networking tools, and visualization methods. Several issues will be addressed in the workshop, including (1) the role of extended partnerships to tackle large development projects with diverse technical needs, (2) mechanisms for identifying end-user needs in designing informatics applications, (3) security, property rights, and management issues associated with building integrated data access systems, and (4) achieving new goals while maintaining backward compatibility with legacy data resources and software systems. 

DM-5 Title:  GIS on the internet and LTER: A frontier for research, applications, and solutions. 

Organizer: Ned Gardiner (CWT) 

This workshop will formally present internet Geographical Information Science  (GIS) technologies to the LTER community.  Principal investigators, students,  and computer specialists comprise the speakers.  Talks and demonstrations will expose participants to planning, implementing, and expanding GIS applications  on the World Wide Web.  The focus will be on research, including planning new  and ongoing projects, data visualization, sharing data, and communicating  across the large distances that typically separate scientists who collaborate  in the LTER network and beyond.  Investigators will observe and consider  the role of internet-based GIS in bringing LTER science to bear on regional  ecosystem analyses.  Information managers will bring their own expertise and  will leave with a broader vision of internet GIS applications and solutions  for their own work.  We will provide timely examples of how live, web-based  GIS will continue to enhance any long term ecological research program. 

*****   REMOTE SENSING   ***** 

RS-1 Title: Scaling carbon flux to the site level in the context of EOS/MODIS validation. 

Organizers: David Turner (AND), Warren Cohen (AND), Peter Reich (CDR), John Vande Castle  (NET) 

Abstract: Spatial data layers related to carbon flux variables such as net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) are of interest to the science community in terms of understanding the global carbon cycle, and to the policy community in terms of quantifying sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.  Various alternative approaches to developing such data layers at the scale of an LTER site and its surrounding area are under investigation at different LTER sites, and in many cases satellite remote sensing is employed in these analyses. An annual global NPP product at the 1 km resolution will be available beginning in 2000 in association with the Earth Observing System MODIS sensor, and development of validation data layers at LTER sites could provide impetus towards integration among disciplines at the site level, and integration across sites at the network level.  The Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) provides an international framework for this activity since one of the projects within GTOS is designed to link site-level NPP measurements with the global MODIS NPP product.  The workshop is intended to promote convergence among the sites towards a common approach for developing and annually updating an NPP data layer.  About 4 invited 20 minute talks would highlight on-going efforts within LTER in this research area and these would be followed by two half-hour moderated sessions concerned with 1) firming up the participation of LTER in GTOS, and 2) sorting out the NPP/NEP relationship. 

RS-2 Title: Practical statistics for long-term data.
*This workshop organized by and for graduate students*

Organizer: Karen Wilson (NTL) 

Abstract: Statistical treatment of short long-term data sets, such as the ones generated by LTER sites, is not always a straightforward procedure.  In this session, we hope to introduce researchers to a number of methods used by NTL-LTER researchers to detect trends in LTER data sets.  We will use existing data sets gathered from LTER sites to demonstrate the techniques and attempt to make the seminar as hands-on as possible. 

RS-3 Title: New remote sensing satellite products: Potential applications in ecology.

Organizers: Michele Thorton, Steve Running (University of Montana), Dave Verbyla (BNZ) 

Abstract: NASA's next generation of satellites, a suite labeled Earth Observing System (EOS), will provide biophysical data at temporal and spatial resolutions that are useful for long term ecological analyses across landscapes.  EOS data relevant to landscape applications include estimates of primary production, drought and fire indices, climatological data, snow cover and surface temperature.  Most of these data sets are estimated globally at a 1 km resolution with a weekly temporal repeat.  The main objective of this workshop will be to demonstrate EOS data sets to ecosystem modelers with a particular emphasis in the areas of primary production and fire/drought indices. The workshop will also provide a background in basic remote sensing techniques as they apply to specific EOS data sets, and information on how interested scientists can regularly acquire EOS data. 

RS-4 Title: Spread spectrum radio communication - Remote sensing and the Internet. 

Organizers: Paul Hanson (NTL), T. Kratz (NTL), D. Hughs (Old Colorado City Communications), and Chris Owens (Apprise Technologies).

Abstract: With the availability of spread spectrum radios, computer communication can now extend beyond the end of the dirt road at a reasonable price. Spread spectrum radios allow bi-directional communication with bandwidths approaching many current Internet hookups or even local area networks (115 Kbps to 11 Mbps), without FCC licensing. The goals of this workshop will be to describe the current state of the technology, including its capabilities, costs, and limitations; to engage participants in a live demonstration of an existing system; and to discuss potential applications to LTER research. Suggested products of the workshop include: 1) a model for remote sensing using spread spectrum radios, including the technology, personnel, and data requirements, and 2) a spread spectrum radio product and technology guide available as a web page. 

RS-5 Title: Introduction to Lidar remote sensing. 

Organizer: Michael Lefsky (AND) 

Abstract: The LTER Network has played a central role in the validation and application of new remote sensing technologies. One such technology, lidar remote sensing, has only recently become available for use in ecological applications. Unlike microwave and conventional optical sensors, lidar sensors directly measure the distribution of vegetation material along a vertical axis and can be used to provide three-dimensional characterizations of vegetation structure. Recent work has demonstrated the utility of lidar for measuring the three-dimensional distribution of canopy material and its associated light environment, and for predicting aboveground biomass, LAI, and the structural complexity of two contrasting forests. This workshop will focus on the theory behind the measurements made by these systems, a review of their applications, and an introduction to the practical details of processing lidar data. A key element of this workshop will be a discussion of potential applications of lidar in the accomplishment of a wide range of science objectives including (but not limited to), measuring vegetation structure, identifying wildlife habitat, and parametrizing models of NPP. Results of this workshop will include a web course on lidar remote sensing, to be developed from course materials, and a document outlining a strategy for cross-site validation and application of lidar measurements. 


CM-2 Title: Climate variability and ecosystem response (CVER) and quasi-quintennial scale (including ENSO).

Organizers: Ray Smith (PAL) and David Greenland(AND/NWT). 

Abstract: Over half the LTER sites display a detectable climatic signal from the El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). AND, LUQ, and PAL have particularly strong signals while climates are also affected at BNZ, CWT, HBR, HFR, JRN, KBS, NTL, SEV, VCR and probably CAP. Significant effects on the ecosystem have already been identified for the PAL, NTL, and SEV sites. Presentations are sought on the identification of ENSO effects at LTER sites and how these effects pass through the cascade of the ecosystem. We seek to test the hypothesis that for the ENSO climatic signal to become effective it must have an identified linkage in space and time with a specific part of the ecosystem function.  Non ENSO-related quasi-quintennial scale climate variability is also open for investigation. 

Products:  As for the other workshops in this series an addition to the LTER network web site is anticipated and, depending on the content of the other three parts of this workshop, a "highlights" article could be prepared for BioScience, EOS (the American Geophysical weekly journal), Science News, or MOSAIC (the NSF research highlights publication). 

CM-3 Title: CVER and the interdecadal scale (e.g. PDO and NAO). 

Organizer: Doug Goodin (KNZ/Climate Committee) 

LTER sites present a unique opportunity to observe and compare the effect of various climate cycles on an array of ecosystems differentiated by latitude, longitude, continental position, and other macroclimate controls.  This workshop will focus on the ecosystem effects of climate variability occurring at interdecadal (i.e. 10-20 year) cycles, with special emphasis on well-studies teleconnections such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).  These processes can be expected to affect different regions of North America; effects of the NAO should be most apparent in the East and Southeast, PDO effects in the Northwest.  Major questions for the workshop might include; (1) are there ecosystems observations in  the LTER data record consistent with PDO/NAO cycles, (2) can interdecadal scale fluctuations be separated from climate change patterns occurring at other time scales, is LTER ecosystem databases "biased" to one cycle of PDO or NAO?  These questions also suggest cross-site issues, i.e. are interdecadal effects more apparent in some sites/ecosystems compared to others?  Which sites are predominately effected by PDO or NAO (or neither)?  Are there sites where the database is sufficiently long to encompass a phase shift in the oscillation cycle, and if so, how is this shift manifest in the existing observations? 

Projected products for the workshop include a written report to be disseminated via the climate committee web page. 

CM-4 Title: Climate variability and ecosystem response: Century to millennial time scales (paleo-climate). 

Organizers: Berry Lyons (MCM) and Andrew Fountain (MCM). 

The workshop examines ecosystem response to long term climatic variations. Although many parts of an ecosystem respond relatively quickly to climatic variations, other components respond more slowly such that any given ecosystem may be continually responding to some past climatic change. The magnitude of the response depends in part on the frequency and magnitude of climatic variations.  We anticipate that responses to century-scale variations will be different than millennial scale variations.  Within this variability topography may enhance changes at, say, low elevations compared to changes at higher elevations.  The degree of physical interconnections across landscapes, through stream flow for example, is another important variable in the degree of ecosystem response to climatic variations.  In addition we highlight the importance of climatic legacy, or, the "memory" of an ecosystem to events in the past millennia that strongly imprint current ecosystem structure and function. 

CM-5 Title:  Biogeographical and biogeochemical analysis of climate variability and change.

Organizers: Dennis Ojima (SGS), Ron Neilson (AND), William Parton (SGS), and Tim Kittel (NCAR) 

The VEMAP group has produced a set of transient climate data for the conterminous United States extending from 1895 through 2100.  The climate data available past 1993 is derived from the two general circulation models used in the recent National Assessment of Climate Change Impacts.  These models are from the Canadian Climate Centre (CCC) and the Hadley Climate Center (HAD).  Using various ecosystem and biogeographical models with these climate files we simulated changes in net primary production, soil carbon, change in net total system carbon storage, evapotranspiration, runoff, fire frequency, and biome changes. 

We propose to provide detailed analysis of these results in the areas encompassing the LTER sites.  The workshop will provide a description of the methodology used to simulate climate and CO2 changes on the terrestrial ecosystems as well as an in depth discussion of how current vegetation and ecosystem conditions change under the various scenarios for the different LTER locations.  The climate and the output data will be made available for each of the sites. 

We encourage participants to provide observations of net primary production, soil carbon, change in net total system carbon storage, evapotranspiration, runoff, fire frequency, and biome changes for their prospective sites to compare against the simulated values.  This will aid the VEMAP group to evaluate the accuracy of their simulations. 


EL-1 Title: Characteristics and roles of biological legacies in ecosystem recovery. 

Organizers: Jerry F. Franklin (AND) and Robert Waide (LUQ) 

Scope: Biological legacies associated with major disturbances in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems 

Objectives: To analyze the types and patterns of biological legacies which persist following major disturbances in terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems and assess their importance in maintaining ecosystem processes and biological diversity in the recovering ecosystem. 

Products: Series of papers in either journal or in book format on concept and significance of biological legacies 

EL-2 Title: Importance of past and current human and natural disturbance in ecosystems.

Organizers: David Foster, Nick Brokaw, Bill McDowell, Charles Redman, Jill 
Thompson, Bob Waide 

Abstract: The present structure and function of many ecosystems reflect a history of human and natural disturbances.  What are these effects; how long do they persist; and how do they differ?  What are present-day human impacts, how do they interact with natural processes, and how can we predict resulting long-term effects?  The workshop organizers will briefly discuss past, present,  and future disturbances and their impacts, based on studies at the Harvard Forest and Luquillo LTER sites and in the Yucatan Peninsula.  Retrospective studies demonstrate past events and continuing impacts, while current experiments (such as soil warming studies at Harvard Forest) help predict future impacts of human activity.  After the organizers introductory comments, we hope that representatives from the array of LTER sites will describe and compare human and natural disturbance at their sites, so that we can look for differences, commonalities, and gradients among the variety of LTER ecosystems. 

EL-3 Title: Catastrophic disturbances on ecosystems of the LTER sites in the east Asian coastal region.

Organizer: Hen-biau King 

Abstract: Disturbance is one of the elements that regulate structure, function and regeneration of ecosystems. Major disturbances in the East Asian coastal region are earthquake, typhoon, fire, drought, flood, pollution, etc. Many ecosystems in this region have experienced great damages due to catastrophic disturbances, for instances, fires for Indonesia, flooding for the Philippines, earthquakes and typhoon for China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, and volcanic eruptions for Indonesia and Japan. Disturbance varies in pattern, intensity and frequency and its impacts to ecosystems also vary. This workshop will identify the importance of the major disturbances to the structure and function of local and regional ecosystems of the East Asia region. Comparisons will be made to distinguish the responses of ecosystem to natural disturbances from those to human impacts. Cross-site collaborations among scientists from various LTER sites may be established during the discussion period of the workshop. Speakers already contacted (titles and names) 1. Landscape analysis of post-typhoon changes in NDVI in a subtropical forest Pei-fen Lee 2. Natural Disturbances and Anthropogenic Stresses Teng-chiu Lin 3. Geographical variation of the disturbances in the cool-temperate forest region in Japan and East Asia Tohru Nakashizuka 4. Effects of typhoon on litterfall in the Fushan forest of northeastern Taiwan in 8 years". Kuo-chuan Lin 5. Typhoon impacts on streamwater chemistry and output in Fushan subtropical watersheds, NE Taiwan Lih-jih Wang, Yue-joe Hsia, Hen-biau King, Tegn-chiu Lin, Jeen-liang Hwang, and Chiung-pin Liu 

ABSTRACT FOR WED. AFTERNOON INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP:The International Long Term Ecological Research Network began at a summit meeting at the LTER All Scientist's Meeting in 1993. Since that time, 21 countries have developed research networks devoted to long-term ecological investigations. Six regional networks of countries have developed around common ecological themes and issues:
North America, East Asia and Pacific, Central and South America, Central Europe, Western Europe, and Middle East.
These regional networks, and indeed the global network of LTER sites, provide an important opportunity to address ecological issues at scales ranging from the individual site to the globe. The challenge of this meeting is to develop meaningful experiments and measurements that can be a performed across sites and regions. Presentations by representatives of the regional networks will lead into a discussion of priorities in developing cross-site research agendas.

Fire as the driver of landscape scale ecosystem pattern in Tasmania and its relevance to the Warra LTER site.

Organizers: M. J. Brown and J. Hickey

ABSTRACT The vegetation of western Tasmania is a mosaic of fire sensitive and fire resilient components in which catastrophic wildfire has been a major driver of landscape level ecosystem pattern. Determination of 'natural' fire regimes is confounded by over 30 000 years of human occupancy. However, modern human activity has sharply demarcated uses from the near zero tolerance of fires in National Parks to the routine use of clearfell burn and sow techniques in adjacent areas of wet forest used for wood production. Between these poles are various prescribed fire regimes used for habitat management or fuel reduction. The Warra LTER site incorporates both National Park and wood production forests, and a range of fire sensitive and fire promoting vegetation having disparate fire regimes. The site can potentially inform ecological management over much broader areas. Current experiments at Warra are examining: Options for alternative silvicultural systems, including fire regimes in wood production forests. Object orientated modelling of natural and imposed fire regimes. Patterns of fuel accumulation and carbon cycling in wet eucalypt forest. Climate reconstructions and fire histories using dendrochronology. Fire history maps have been reconstructed from historical accounts, tree ring counts and aerial photograph interpretation. The data suggest that much of the eucalypt forest in the area has regenerated from catastrophic wildfires, but that these give a mosaic of burn intensities and rarely result in complete stand replacement. However, altered fire regimes have caused significant depletion of high altitude conifer forests, which were a common feature in much of western Tasmania. Management of the fire sensitive remnants is a major issue for conservation in Tasmania, especially given the context of fuel accumulation and fire avoidance within National Parks, and increased frequency of ignition sources via hot regeneration burns in nearby eucalypt wood production forest.

EL-4 Title:  Integrating LTER research into ecosystem management. 

Organizers: Larry Dyer (KBS) and Phil Robertson (KBS) 

Ecosystem management has been adopted, at least in concept, by the major land management agencies of the United States as a means of dealing with the complexities and uncertainties of managing lands under their jurisdictions.  The scientific basis for ecosystem management is adaptive management using the best science available to construct models of ecosystem function.  With sites in many of North Americas major biomes, the LTER Network has much to offer land managers to assist the process of ecosystem management.  Indeed, a number of LTER researchers have experience in ecosystem management they could share.  We propose a workshop to discuss the potentials for integrating LTER research into ecosystem management.  The workshop would consist of three stages. 

  1. Three or four presentations, preferably case studies of ecosystem management processes that have drawn on the LTER sites as resources. One of these presentations could be on a new initiative at KBS to apply ecosystem management concepts to farming system management. 
  2. Break into smaller groups to discuss several key questions (workshop participants could propose additional questions if they coordinate with us ahead of time). (a) How do we develop the models how do we incorporate LTER data into the models actually used by managers? (b) How do we strengthen the human links and overcome the institutional barriers to facilitate exchange among LTER sites and land managers? (c) How do we make LTER research responsive to needs and questions arising from land management to make adaptive management possible? 
  3. Come together in a large group to synthesize the conclusions of the small groups and propose action items. 

EL-5 Title: Learning from spatial vs. temporal variability in ecosystem processes and their drivers. 

Organizers: Tim Kratz (NTL), Bill Lauenroth (SGS), John Blair (KNZ), Alan Knapp (KNZ) 

A significant amount of variation in some key ecosystem processes can explained by variation in a single key driving variable.  Examples include primary production in grasslands driven by precipitation and primary production in lakes driven by phosphorus.  The slope of the relationship between process and driver sometimes differs depending on whether spatial or among-year variation is examined.  This variation in slope has been linked with life history traits of the dominant organisms involved in the particular process under consideration or to an indirect effect such as the supply of an additional limiting  factor.  These constraints on response to among-year variation are important when considering likely effects of global change of driving variables.  This workshop will examine spatial vs among-year variation in a broad suite of processes and their drivers from a diverse set of biomes.


HG-1 Title: Human modification of hydrologic cycles: effects on nutrient dynamics at local and regional scales.

Organizers: Nancy Grimm (CAP) and Larry Band (BES), and Dan Childers (FCE) 

Rationale: Dramatic alterations of hydrologic flowpaths and the hydrologic cycle at local scales have occurred due to diversion of water for irrigation and domestic uses, because of a perceived need for flood protection, or in order to develop land (e.g., housing subdivisions). These alterations in hydrologic properties have profound consequences for catchment-scale nutrient cycles because of the close relationship between water and nutrient cycling. A gradient of influences can be envisioned from relatively minor hydrologic alterations in agricultural landscapes to the wholesale creation of an urban hydrology that bears little resemblance to pre-urban hydrology. This workshop will include four primary speakers (hydrologists and biogeochemists working in agricultural and urban systems), invited rapporteurs and synthesizer, and liberal amounts of discussion. Taking 2 pm as a starting point, here is a possible schedule for a 3-hour workshop: 

  • 2:00 Workshop presentation on hydrologic modifications in agricultural landscapes 
  • 2:20  Workshop presentation on hydrologic modifications in urban environments 
  • 2:40 Directed general discussion of hydrologic modifications 
  • 3:00 Workshop presentation on human modification of nutrient cycles in agricultural landscapes 
  • 3:20 Workshop presentation on human modification of nutrient cycles in urban landscapes 
  • 3:40 Directed general discussion of nutrient cycle modifications 
  • 4:00 Breakout discussion groups 
  • 4:40 Synthesis session: reports from discussion group leaders (2) and synthesizer (1) 
For directed general discussions, invited participants will be asked to bring data, posters, or other material that can provide additional examples of causes or consequences of human modifications. These will be posted or presented (limit of time=3 min, 1 overhead or handout) to the group during the discussions; a follow-up poster session for the evening could certainly be planned. 

For the breakout discussion groups, Grimm and Band will identify 2-4 (depending on number of participants) key questions to be addressed in these groups, and we will invite discussion leaders for each question. 

HG-2 Title: Intersite hydrology studies in the LTER Network. 

Organizer: Julia Jones (AND) 

Abstract: This workshop addresses ecological hydrology and hydro-ecology, i.e. the interactions between hydrology and ecology. The objectives of the workshop are (1) to bring together scientists from diverse LTER sites who are interested in water and its ecological roles; (2) to present and evaluate hypotheses about ecological-hydrological process interactions arising from intersite hydrology research ongoing among the forest LTER sites AND, CWT, HBR, and LUQ; and (3) to encourage participation (comparable analyses) from a broader range of ecosystems.  Possible products include a booklet on LTER intersite hydrology (similar to those prepared for climate and stream ecology); proposal(s) at the site or intersite level for collaborative investigations of hypotheses about ecological hydrology, and a short multi-authored note for an ecological journal listing and describing hypotheses about ecological hydrology. 

HG-3 Title: Interactions between surface and ground waters: Implications for landscape-level biogeochemical fluxes. 

Organizers: Steve Hamilton (KBS), Randy J. Hunt (NTL), and Walter Dodds (KNZ) 

Abstract: This workshop will bring together scientists with expertise in hydrology, geochemistry, and aquatic ecology to discuss how movement of water between surface waters (streams, wetlands, and lakes) and groundwater controls energy and nutrient transport across landscapes and influences the biogeochemical characteristics of surface waters.  These hydrologic and biogeochemical fluxes are likely to be affected by climate change or changing land use and cover.  We will analyze state-of-the-art approaches and recent advances in understanding the importance of surface/groundwater exchanges.  We will also consider how a long-term monitoring program could incorporate measurements that would reveal changes in surface/groundwater exchanges, and identify baseline data that should be collected to allow cross-site comparisons of landscape-level hydrologic linkages and their importance for ecosystem function. 

HG-4 Title: Intersite comparisons of channel and watershed geomorphology: What can we learn? 

Organizers: Gordon Grant (AND) and Fred Scatena (LUQ) 

Abstract: A common reference point for all LTER sites is the geomorphic environment in which they sit.  While there have been intersite comparisons of climate, hydrology, biogeochemistry, and streams (the latter primarily from an aquatic habitat perspective), to date there has been no explicit analysis of the types of physical stream environments represented by the LTER network.  LTER sites span a rich and diverse range of channels, from high energy mountain streams to lower energy lowland rivers, to estuarine and tidal channels.  These channels differ dramatically in terms of their types, frequencies, magnitudes, and durations of disturbances, degree of channel bedform and planform organization, and sensitivity to changes in riparian and upland conditions. 

This workshop will be the first attempt to systematically consider how this range of channel environments presents opportunities for intersite work.  Our goal will be to begin to develop an organizing framework for channel types, using scales of energetics, attributes of flow and sediment transport regimes, strength of coupling between hillslope and channel systems, and degree of biotic modification.  We anticipate that such a framework will be quite useful for developing process-level hypotheses to explain both biotic and abiotic factors observed in channels.  For example, how does the flow regime influence the degree of physical organization of the channel bed?  What is the relation between channel bed and trophic organization?  How do similar disturbances (i.e., floods) play out in diverse morphologies, and what are the implications for long-term ecological succession?  Follow-up products from this workshop are likely to include joint intersite proposals to develop some of the more lucrative themes and questions that emerge in the discussion. 


RH-1 Title: Chemical weathering and landscape development 

Organizers: Bill McDowell (LUQ), Dave Long (KBS), Berry Lyons (MCM) and, tentatively, Gwen Macpherson (KNZ) and Carl Bowser (NTL) 

This workshop will examine the effect that climate variation and other disturbances have on the rates of chemical weathering at LTER sites. Because the LTER sites represent a wide variety of ecological settings, geological terrains and climate regimes, they make a useful set of well-characterized set of sites to evaluate the role of climate, vegetation and hydrology on chemical weathering. The LTER sites also include both "passive" monitoring sites and those which have been disturbed or manipulated. LTER monitoring data should provide the fundamental data for calculating solute and weathering rates. The workshop will emphasize both the development and presentation of weathering rates at the various LTER sites and encourage comparative, process-level studies at several sites. For example, work at both MCM and LUQ suggests that weathering may be much faster in riparian or hyporeic zones than in upslope positions. Title: Controls on nutrient exchange processes between terrestrial and 
aquatic ecosystems 

RH-2 Title: Controls on carbon and nitrogen processes in riparian zones

Organizers: Alan Yeakley (CWT), and Steve Wondzell (HJA) 

Abstract: The relative importance of nutrient controls in riparian zones varies among ecosystems depending on factors including variability in parent materials, geomorphology, climate and hydrology, as well as the type, extent, diversity and maturity of microbial and vegetation communities present. The purpose of this workshop is to summarize controls on biogeochemical transformations and fluxes of N and C through riparian zones among LTER ecosystems.

RH-3 Title:  Links between herbivores, trees, and nitrogen cycling.

Organizer:  Kevin Kosola (KBS) 

Scope of workshop: 
     There are several recent studies at LTER sites on the effects of herbivory on nitrogen cycling in forest ecosystems.  At KBS, we are looking at gypsy moth defoliation of hybrid poplar; at Coweeta, sawfly defoliation of oaks; and at Bonanza Creek, mammalian browsers on taiga forests.  Comparison and contrasts between responses of nutrient cycling to herbivory in these different ecosystems should be very interesting; are there any parallels to be found among our studies, even with the variation among sites in climate, herbivores, and dominant plants?  This workshop will provide the opportunity to bring together the interdisciplinary groups at each LTER site working on this topic.  Scientists working on the effects of grazing on nutrient cycling in grassland ecosystems (e.g. Konza prairie) may also be interested in participating in the discussions. 

RH-4 Title: The enigma of occult N in ecosystems 

Organizers : E. A. Paul(KBS), and S. J. Morris (Michigan State University) 

The individual reactions involved in N cycling include the possibility of gaseous or inorganic exchanges with the environment. Most recently-disturbed sites have been shown to lose N.  Revegetating grasslands and forests often sequester it, sometimes at surprisingly high levels. Allison's 1955 review entitled " The Enigma of Nitrogen Balances in Soil" is still applicable today in many ecosystems. The role of N in ground water pollution, in global change as greenhouse gases, as a constituent of sequestered soil organic matter as well as in the potential for forest decline makes it imperative that we gain a more quantitative understanding of N fluxes. Isotope-tracer and GC methodology have provided reasonably accurate estimates for many inputs and outputs. Asymbiotic N fixation has been shown to be low and unable, together with measured rainfall deposition, to account for the at times large (occult) gains found in some long term studies. We will discuss the possible mechanisms for large transfers, where they occur and how they affect interpretation of ecosystem functioning. 

RH-5 Title: Ecosystem-level nutrient dynamics: Cross-comparisons 

Organizer: Larry Baker (CAP) 

Abstract:  The goal of the workshop is to develop a conceptual model to "explain", or at least visualize, differences among various types of ecosystems with respect to nutrient mass balances, with an emphasis on nitrogen and carbon.  The workshop will seek to examine variability in accumulation rates (gaining, loosing, or at steady-state), sites of accumulation (plants, surface soils, aquifers), external inputs (biotic fixation, non-mediated fluxes of fixed N, combustion-mediated fixation, deliberate human importation), and exportation (relative to other terms) in relation to climatological and hydrological conditions, human activities, and edaphic factors. 

Participants would be urged to bring summary results for their ecoystems to the workshop.  Presentations will be structured to organize data into a central matrix for discussion of cross-comparisons.  The goal is to develop comparisons regarding variations in the macroscopic aspects of whole-ecosystem scale biogeochemical cycling. 

RH-10 Title: Soil resource heterogeneity and ecosystem processes: Relevance, applications, and analysis.

Organizers: Sherri Jeakins Morris (Michigan State University, KBS) and Sara G. Baer (Kansas State University, KPRNA) 

Abstract: Workshop intended to provide: 1) a synthesis of the relevance of spatial heterogeneity in soil resources and impacts for evaluating ecosystem processes; 2) ecological sampling designs to assess spatial resource variability, and 3) a review of statistical approaches. Heterogeneity of soil resources (i.e. nutrient pools, physical properties and microbial community composition and function) may influence plant growth, species interactions, productivity, and community diversity. Considerable spatial variation in belowground resources and aboveground community dynamics has been documented in a variety of ecosystems. This workshop will review the role of soil resource heterogeneity in regulating system-level properties and processes. Presentations on current research will provide a framework to assess: (1) whether current information on soil heterogeneity can be used to develop better ecological sampling schemes for ecosystem studies; (2) potential limitations of specific sampling designs to incorporate spatial dynamics into models of landscape or ecosystem level processes; (3) application of information to implementing restoration projects or improved ecosystem monitoring programs. Format: Presentations and informal discussion.  Listed in Social and Economic Research in LTER on the Regisrtation Page


OM-1 Title: The role of light fraction and particulate organic matter in intensively managed systems.

Organizers: Ann-Marie Ezanno (KBS), Chris Blackwood (KBS), and Johan Six (NREL) 

Abstract: Physical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) have been found to play critical roles in regulation of microbial community structure, organic matter turnover, and aggregate formation. This workshop will provide an overview of current particulate organic matter (POM) and light fraction (LF) research across several LTER ecosystems. Opening discussions will address the relevance of SOM physical fractions to basic research and management of ecosystem processes. Hypotheses concerning other aspects of ecosystem structure and function that are potentially controlled by LF or POM will be generated. The workshop will conclude with a forum on future research directions and applications of LF and POM studies. The discussion will include possible changes in farm and forest management recommendations. Future research will focus on new ways of interpreting current data and/or new measurements that can be made within SOM physical fractions. 

OM-2 Title:  Long-term decomposition studies in the LTER Network.

Organizer: Mark Harmon (AND) 

Abstract: It has been a decade since the need for long-term decomposition experiments was acknowledged and acted upon by the LTER Network.  What have we learned during this period?  This workshop will review the findings of LIDET  (Long-term Intersite Decomposition Experiment Team) and other experiments that have been conducted within and outside the US LTER Network. This will be followed by a discussion of additional analyses of these studies and identification of new experiments that would provide additional insights into the nature of long-term decomposition processes. 

0M-3Title: Dissolved organic matter (C & N) in soil interstitial water, lakes and streams: Approaches for functional characterization 

Organizer: Diana McKnight (MCM) 

Abstract: There has been increasing interest in the role of dissolved organic material in terrestrial ecosystems and in the flux and ecological role of terrestrial organic matter in aquatic ecosystems. The measurement of DOC or DON concentrations alone presents a limitation to understanding biogeochemical processes because of the inherent chemical heterogeneity of DOM. In studies of soil interstitial water, DOM concentrations may be high but the volume of water sample that can be obtained may be small. Whereas, in lakes and streams the DOM concentrations are more dilute but the volume of water sample that can be obtained is not limited, and preparative scale DOM isolation methods are practical. Methods which have been developed for studying DOM in aquatic ecosystems have the potential to be useful for studies of DOM in soil interstitial water, and vice versa. This workshop is intended to be a format for exchanging methods and expertise and for identifying common areas for future development of characterization of dissolved organic material that is meaningful for biogeochemical function. 

OM-4 Title:  Primary productivity in forests:  Status of research and planning for the future. 

Organizer:  Tim Fahey (HBR) 

As a core area in the LTER Network, net primary productivity is under intensive study at all the forest-dominated sites.  This workshop will provide an opportunity for researchers conducting NPP studies in forests to describe their current activities and to explore:  1. patterns and controls 
of NPP, 2. cross-site synthesis possibilities, and 3. standards for NPP measurement.  We anticipate that products and outcomes of this workshop could include plans for new cross-site research initiatives, a synthesis article about NPP patterns and controls, and development of recommendations for standardized measurements of forest NPP, for inclusion in a Standard 
Methods volume. 

Introduction: Cross-site initiatives in the analysis of forest NPP at LTER sites TIM FAHEY

Temporal patterns in NPP: some thoughts about storage, buffers and delayed responses GUS SHAVER

(MBL and ARC) Site Reports Bonanza Creek ROGER RUESS


  • Forest NPP patterns: direct and indirect effects of climate and plant community composition WHENDEE SILVER (UC-Berkeley and LUQ)

Site Reports

Hubbard Brook TIM FAHEY

Harvard Forest

  • Forest NPP constraints: hydrologic considerations and age-related declines BARBARA BOND (OSU and AND)

Site Reports


Other sites? Cedar Creek or Kellogg

  • Analysis of large-scale patterns of foret NPP STEVE RUNNING (U Montana)

General Discussion

OM-5 Title: Biodiversity and net primary productivity demonstration projects for ILTER and GTOS. 

Organizer:  Jim Gosz (SEV) 

Abstract: The anticipated launch of the TERRA satellite with its MODIS instrument will provide unprecedented abilities to develop global estimates of Net Primary Productivity and Net Ecosystem Productivity.  This also represents an opportunity to relate other parameters to NPP.  One of the difficult relationships to quantify is the biodiversity-NPP interaction.  Most studies of biodiversity and NPP are small scale and are affected by scale dependent properties.  The satellite technology offers the opportunity to use a common scale for NPP (1 km pixels) and develop biodiversity measures for the same scale.  The first demonstration project will be to relate avifauna diversity measures to NPP in countries that have broad and multiple scale measures (South African, United Kingdom and United States). Analyses will be presented to stimulate other country participation and other biodiversity examples. 


PS-1 Title:  Studies of fungi at LTER sites (SEV) 

Organizer: Mike Allen 

Fungi play critical roles in terrestrial ecosystems. Yet these organisms are largely ignored in large-scale studies. Fungi are generally viewed and studied as microorganisms, in that individual hyphae are only a few micrometers in diameter. Most studies occur in individual petri dishes or glasshouse pots for days to weeks. However, many are macroorganisms forming colonies that extend for 100's of m2 and last for many years. They comprise the most diverse group of eukaryotes. Thus, long-term studies at LTER sites may be the best means of assessing the biodiversity and functioning of these organisms. On-going studies of fungi at LTER sites will be presented assessing the range of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. 

PS-2 Title: Causes and consequences of invasive species: Past and future contributions of the LTER Network

Organizers: T.R. Seastedt (NWT) and Laura Huenneke  (JRN) , Don Young (VCR), Alan Knapp (KNZ) M.Smith (KNZ), William Lauenroth (SGS) and Anna Sher

Nonindigenous, invasive species have attracted the attention of land managers and conservation agencies. These species are perceived as threats to native biological diversity and the ecosystem services provided by native species. To date most work with invasions comes from a population biology perspective. The LTER network provides the opportunity to examine invasions in an ecosystem context. Following presentations, a discussion will identify the key questions and hypotheses that can be rigorously tested using LTER sites, data, and experimental designs, and how current and future research on LTER sites can be exploited to address this societal concern.  

PS-5 Title: The DIVERSITAS - International Biodiversity Observation Year: Raising the profile of biodiversity science. Where are we now and what more is needed?

Organizer: Diana Wall (MCM) 

Biodiversity science has recently undergone a revolution, with new developments in areas such as the internet and molecular methods.  However, its important contribution to urgent issues facing the biosphere generally remains unrecognized by society. 
The DIVERSITAS-International Biodiversity Observation Year (IBOY) for 2001-2002 aims to focus global attention on the critical issue of biodiversity through promoting the science of biological diversity, using projects that will push the frontiers of science, forge links across disparate elements, develop a new cohesive science, provide the basis for policy decisions, and engage and educate the public. Many national and international projects, coordinated by National and International DIVERSITAS-IBOY committees are underway or under development. These projects showcase the vast spectrum of biodiversity science, examining diverse taxa in projects ranging from a global survey of soil organisms involved in decomposition to an exploration of deep sea biota, utilizing the latest technology in projects ranging from development of  DNA banks for endangered species to establishment of a global internet species index, and engaging sectors of society from research scientists to schoolchildren and commerce. This workshop will review the status of global biodiversity science reflected through DIVERSITAS-IBOY. It will examine the aims and projects of DIVERSITAS-IBOY, identify major gaps in the program and recommend new projects or measures to address these gaps. Ultimately, participants will review whether DIVERSITAS-IBOY is on track to significantly push the frontiers and raise the global profile of biodiversity science and recommend measures to increase its success. 

PS-6 Title: Strategies for examining the effects of species interactions on ecosystem processes: Do different research strategies yield consistent results?

Organizers: Scott Cooper (SBC), Robin Ross (PAL), and Joel Trexler (FCE) 

Abstract: Some of the largest impacts of human activities on ecosystems are mediated through alterations in the composition and patterns of abundance of species in biological communities. Although populations are directly affected by both natural and anthropogenic perturbations, we can seldom predict the implications of population-level effects on ecosystem processes. Thus, a key question in ecological research concerns extrapolating from the direct and indirect of effects of perturbations on populations to inter-species interactions and, ultimately, their effects on ecosystem processes. This workshop will include research groups that have used multiple strategies to address the effects of perturbations on populations, communities, and ecosystems. Common research strategies include time series analysis and the analysis of natural perturbations, extensive surveys, experimental manipulations of species composition and environmental parameters at a variety of scales, analysis of food web structure including the use of stable isotopes, and modeling. Ecological responses that have been measured include both ecosystem-level fluxes of nutrients and/or energy, and community structure and biodiversity. We will evaluate consistency in the conclusions derived from different research strategies and response variables. The goal of this workshop is to identify preferred research strategies to interpret the effects of species on ecosystems, with special reference to the unique opportunities provided by long-term ecological research. The goals of this workshop will be to develop ideas for common research strategies that can be used in an inter-site project on the role of species identity in ecosystem processes. 

PS-7 Arthropod studies in the LTER Network: Current assessments, cross-site activities, and future directions. 

Organizers: Bob Parmenter (SEV), Stuart Gage (KBS), Stan Faeth (CAP), and Nancy McIntire (CAP) 

Abstract: Arthropods are among the most important components of ecological processes and are widely studied across the LTER Network. However, no attempt has yet been made to assess and synthesize these studies, nor to organize comprehensive cross-site comparisons of arthropod taxa, diversity, or ecological importance. This workshop will address: (1) an assessment of the status of arthropod studies across the LTER Network (project goals, methods, taxa, personnel); (2) the extent of research Museums in LTER studies and maintenance of voucher collections; (3) the potential use of existing data for cross-site comparisons; (4) possibilities for future collaborative, cross-site studies; and (5) potential LTER arthropod studies in new NSF initiatives (BON and NEON). The workshop will feature presentations on pre-workshop assessments of Goals 1 and 2, and group discussions of Goals 3, 4, and 5. Products will include a report on LTER arthropod studies (to be posted on the LTER Network homepage), a catalogue of museum resources (collections and taxonomic expertise) for LTER studies, and a list of opportunities for future collaborative research projects across LTER sites. 

PS-8 Title: Biodiversity, disturbances, and climate variability in arid and semiarid grasslands: A global synthesis. 

Organizers: Edith Kovacs Lang (Hungary), Jim Gosz (SEV), Debra (Coffin) Peters (JRN) 

Abstract: The goal of this workshop is to provide a better understanding of the effects of disturbances and climate variability on patterns in biodiversity across multiple spatial scales. We will compare vegetation within sites, between sites located along climatic gradients, and between countries and continents in order to develop generalities in biodiversity patterns and responses to disturbance for arid and semiarid grasslands. We will invite speakers from different countries and regions to participate in the workshop in order to obtain a broad representation of these grassland types. Expected products include a web page with a summary of the discussion, and possibly a BioScience paper that discusses the global synthesis. 

PS-9 & 10 Title:  Removal experiments on the role of biodiversity in ecosystem functioning.
Note: This workshop takes place over threee days. It begins on Thursday and runs through Saturday.

Organizers:  F. S. Chapin III (BNZ) and Sandra Diaz (Argentina) 

Friday 4 August 8.30 10.40
Morning Session 1:Oral Presentations.
Chair: S. Daz


Sandra Daz

Opening of the Workshop and Presentation of the Network


Steve R. Carpenter

Whole-Lake Food Web Manipulations: Responses of Ecosystem Processes


Pep Canadell & Pablo Inchausti

GCTE Networks and Biodiversity


Jeffrey Houser, T. E. Scheele, S. R. Essington, S. R. Carpenter & J. F. Mitchell

Long Term Effects of a Short Term Lake Food Web Manipulation


David C. Lightfoot & Lucina Hernndez

The Chihuahuan Desert Small Mammal Exclosure Study




11.20 13.00

Morning Session 2:Oral Presentations. Chair: S. Daz



Debra Peters

Removal Experiments and Shifts in Dominance at a Grassland-shrubland Ecotone


Laura F. Huenneke

Jornada Plant Removal Experiment: Distinguishing Effects of Disturbance, Plant Cover, Functional Diversity, and Species Diversity in a Semi-desert Shrubland


William K. Lauenroth

Removal of the Dominant Grass in a Semiarid Steppe.


Kelly Lyons

New Species Colonization: Does Species Diversity Influence Success?


Syndonia Bret-Harte

Species and Functional Types Affect Ecosystem Response to Fertilization in Arctic Tundra




14.00 15.30

Afternoon Session 1: Oral Presentations. Chair: S. Daz


Paul Leadley

Participation and title to be confirmed


Susan Schwinning

Functional diversity in resource pulse utilization in arid shrublands (to be confirmed)


Amy Sysmtad

Recruitment Limitation of Ecosystem Functioning and other Lessons Learned from a Removal Experiment


David A. Wardle

Removal Experiments and Aboveground-Belowground Linkages in Ecosystems


Pilar Huante & Emmanuel Rincn

Design and Diversity in Tropical Woody Plants.




16.00 17.30

Afternoon Session 2: Plenary discussion. Chair: F. S. Chapin

Saturday 5 August

8.30 9.30

Morning Session 1: Oral Presentations Chair: S. Daz


Osvaldo E. Sala

Long Term Results from a Removal Experiment in the Patagonian Steppe


Amy Austin

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in

the Patagonian Steppe: Manipulation of a Keystone Process


Elvira Cuevas

Biological/Biochemical Indices that Reflect Species Effects at the Soil Level





Morning Session 2: Plenary discussion and Workshop Wrap-up. Chair: F. S. Chapin

This Launching Workshop aims to represent the widest possible spectrum of approaches, methods, and experiences concerning removal experiments on the role of biodiversity in ecosystem functioning. We believe that removal experiments are a fruitful way of exploring ideas in ecology, and they may offer the opportunity to break some new ground within the field of the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

We would like all participants to actively participate in assessing what have been learnt from removal experiments, and what are the main drawbacks detected. We are especially interested in focusing on species effects on ecosystem biotic interactions. During the plenary discussions we will discuss refinements of the design of species-removal experiments to avoid the pitfalls and take best advantage of the opportunities described in the presentations. We will also discuss potential interactions and collaborations among network participants and decide whether there is enough information already available to write a general synthesis article.

In your oral presentations, as well as in the plenary sessions, we would like you to Focus on the questions listed below. Note, however, that this is simply a tentative list to guide the discussion. We encourage all participants to submit other questions to be considered.

Some Key Questions

1. What can be learnt and what cannot be learnt from removal experiments? What questions on the role of (functional vs. specific) biodiversity can removal experiments address that cannot be addressed by other approaches? What kind of questions is better answered with removal experiments and what kind with synthetic communities?

2. What are the main methodological and ecological lessons from removal experiments, which have already been running for some time?

3. Can some general guidelines be applied across experiments performed on very different kinds of ecosystems (e.g., can new terrestrial plant removal experiments learn useful things from studies involving removal of aquatic animals?

4. What is the role of plant cover/biomass versus the identity of that biomass? Is ecosystem effect simply a function of the amount of plant stuff removed, or does it matter who is removed (identity of quality of biomass), and how many different things (species diversity) are removed?

5. How does the rate of recovery change in response to the removal of different species or functional groups? Is the rate of recovery related mostly with amount of biomass removed, of is there any "plant quality" effect?

6. Following the removal of different species or functional groups with similar biomass, do we see the same of different species or functional groups taking over?

7. What is the overall ecosystem-level effect of removing different species or functional groups? Is the effect of removing the same functional group similar in different ecosystems?

8. Do we have substantially different responses (e.g. occupation by neighbouring already-existing species vs. invasion by weedy species) in the face of removal of similar functional groups in different systems?

9. Do species poor-systems react in consistently different ways from species-rich systems?

10. Can removal experiments cast some light onto questions about the strength of interactions among species and among functional groups; e.g., whether remaining species or groups can actually use resources released by the removal of other species or groups, whether there is invasion or mostly occupation from neighbouring plants from non-disturbed situations, whether the final result is a more or a less diverse system.

11. What are the ecosystem-function connotations of common management practices that involve removal of species groups, or the reduction of species richness across all groups? In that case, "initial disturbance effects" might be considered as an integral part of the overall effect of the removal of different elements.

12. Are there any general questions/methodological guidelines /experimental protocols which can be shared among new removal experiments, in order to maximise the potential for comparison?

  PS-11 Title: Long-term studies on trophic interactions in aquatic ecosystems.

Organizers: Tadeusz Prus (Poland), Francisco Barbosa (Brazil), Miroslawa Prus (Poland) and Pawel Bijok 

The major topic of this Symposium will be relationship among trophic levels of various groups of organisms such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic animals and fish in different aquatic systems (lakes, dam reservoirs, rivers, estuaries). Some example of detailed studies on nourishment of animals will follow. As a base for the above consideration trophic indices will be characterized in different habitats of a water body and mutual relationship between them (littoral versus pelagial). Special attention will be paid to mountain aquatic biocenoses of North and South hemisphere. Further major topic will concern catchment area as governing factor of aquatic ecosystem functioning with relationship between watershed and landscape management. The workshop will include also contemporary methods of food web investigation. The symposium should lead primarily to setting up cooperation among sites which deal with aquatic ecology. 

PS-12 Title: Stable isotopes in aquatic food web research: Pitfalls and potentials. 

Organizer: David F. Raikow (KBS) 

Scope and Objectives: 

Stable isotopes have provided ecologists with exciting tools of inquiry.  Examination of natural stable isotope abundances and stable isotope enrichment experiments can address questions across a wide range of scales from whole ecosystem nutrient and food web dynamics to the autecology of your favorite organism. In this workshop, the potential for the use of stable isotopes in studying aquatic food webs will be illustrated by the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment (LINX), a study that has been conducted at several LTER sites. More importantly, however, this workshop will focus on important issues that stable isotope users must address, including whether the rate of nitrogen fractionation is constant between different trophic levels and organisms, and the consequences of different turnover rates among organisms during isotope enrichment experiments. Additional topics will be solicited from participants. Brief presentations will introduce subjects, and round-table discussions intended to stimulate debate will follow. While subjects will be generally relevant to all ecological stable isotope research, the immediate context will be aquatic food webs. 

PS-14 Title: Soil and sediment infauna studies in LTER and ILTER sites.

Organizers: David C. Coleman (CWT) and Diana H. Wall (MCM) 

Abstract: Soils and sediments contain a wealth of small infauna organisms (those inhabiting water films), including nematodes, protozoa, and rotifers, many of which are key indicators of ecosystem function, and a reservoir of biodiversity.  Soils and sediments also are crucial to overall ecosystem 
and biosphere functioning.  They contain many biodiversity "hot spots" of varying size and complexities, ranging from rhizospheres to decaying organic matter, macropores, etc.  Our workshop will explore how best to sample, enumerate and work with these interesting and active organisms, which have such profound influences on ecosystem function. 

PS-15 Title: Cross-site and collaborative research in forest canopy ecology at the LTER.

Organizer: Nalini M. Nadkarni (Evergreen State College and the International Canopy Network) 

Abstract: The study of organisms and processes on forest canopies is developing rapidly. Many environmentally important issues such as the maintenance of biodiversity, effects of global environmental change, and sustainable use of forests must include the study of the three-dimensional structure and processes that take place in forest canopies. With the use of canopy access tools such as canopy cranes, and the development of database tools to allow researchers to link and share data, collaborative research is beginning to coalesce.  This workshop will provide a forum to discuss approaches to answer particular questions that involve comparative research at different forested LTER sites. The major objectives are to articulate clear and specific research questions that might involve multiple researchers at LTER sites, and to discuss the tools, funding levels, and sources to implement such research projects. Results will be disseminated via the existing communication pathways of the International Canopy Network (email bulletin board, quarterly newsletter, website). 


LS-1 Title: Scaling from sites to a region: Incorporating landscape processes into regional analyses. 

Organizers: Debra Peters (JRN) and David Foster (HFR) 

Abstract: Regionalization involves a variety of methods and approaches, although many methods share the assumption that independently sampled or simulated points can be used to represent the region. Landscape-scale processes that connect points, such as the invasion of insect pests and weedy plants, ecosystem-atmosphere interactions, and redistribution of soils and nutrients, are increasingly recognized as important in generating patterns and influencing processes at larger spatial scales.  The goal of this workshop is to assess and synthesize across ecosystems the research topics and specific problems where the inclusion of landscape processes is critical to understanding regional patterns and processes. We will compare alternative spatially-interactive approaches to scaling site-level results to the region. We will also discuss the implications of including interactions among landscape units for regional distributions of species and ecosystems as well as for regional assessments. Expected products from the workshop include a web page with a summary of the discussions and a synthesis article in a journal such as BioScience. 

LS-2 Title: Interactions and feedbacks between plots and landscapes: Scaling processes through time and space. 

Organizers: Debra Peters (JRN), Jeff Herrick (JRN) and Kris Havstad (JRN). 

Abstract.  The goal of this workshop is to provide a better understanding of the approaches and difficulties of including spatially-explicit processes when scaling between plot-level studies and the landscape. The workshop will focus both on the scaling of plot-level results to landscape patterns as well as the interpretation of small-scale studies within a landscape context. Through examples from different ecosystem types and across different ecosystem components (e.g. plants, animals, and soils), we will address questions such as: Under what conditions is it necessary to include spatially-explicit processes when scaling from plots to landscapes? Are these conditions similar across ecosystem types? How does including spatially-explicit processes within a landscape context change the interpretation of results from small-scale studies or improve our understanding of ecosystem dynamics at small scales? Expected products from the workshop include a web page summarizing the discussion and a synthesis article in BioScience. 

LS-5 Fundamental questions that define regional analysis.

Organizers: Dennis Ojima, John Helly, Stuart Gage, and  Roger Pielke (SGS)

Abstract: Landscapes and ecosystems of the LTER Sites are representative of larger physiographic, climatic and ecological provinces. These larger domains are often thought of as regions. Findings at LTER Sites are assumed to be representative of the regions within which LTER Sites are located. The sites also have social, cultural and economic features that affect critical processes within the sites. The nature and extent of these regional assumptions vary according to a variety of factors across sites. In our efforts to conduct experiments in regional modeling these issues become central and limiting. The objectives of this workshop are to examine these assumptions and initiate a discussion which will assist in understanding the appropriate scale and character of regional assumptions for other LTER sites individually and in combination. To initiate this discussion we will present some of the efforts underway in the current Biological Scale Process Modeling project sponsored by the LTER Network off ice and the NPACI Earth System Science Thrust. 

ED-2 Title: Models for linking schoolyard ecology with LTER Sites: What has worked and what hasn't.

Organizers: Richard Boone, BNZ; Monica Elser, (CAP), and Stephanie Bestelmeyer (Chihuahuan Desert Nature Park)

ABSTRACT: Schoolyard LTER (SYLTER) was created by NSF as an educational program between the U.S. LTER program and public schools (K-12). The goals of the program are to introduce students to the concepts and practices of long-term ecological research through interaction and collaboration with LTER scientists. At roughly a dozen participating LTER sites the SYLTER programs variously include direct hands-on research by students, workshops for students and teachers by LTER scientists, and lessons utilizing LTER web-based databases. This workshop will be a forum for LTER scientists to highlight their SYLTER program, describing approaches that have not worked well and those that have been most effective. The principal goals of the workshop are to share ideas to improve the success of the SYLTER, to discuss means of collaborating effectively with other science education programs (e.g., GLOBE), and to discuss the possibility of intersite SYLTER activities. Projected products from the workshop include a web page highlighting SYLTER activities across the network and the formation of ad hoc steering committee for coordinating communication and efforts across SYLTER programs. 
This workshop will ALSO look at how we developed "focused field trips"; their utilization by teachers in our Ecology Explorers program as extensions to their classroom content; and how to work with community partners. The CAP LTER scientific protocols that were developed to link scientists with schoolchildren also enrich the education programs at the informal education centers giving them a fresh and new offering for schools and the public. 

At CAP LTER we are in our second year of implementing a Schoolyard Ecology Program (called Ecology Explorers) at schools within metropolitan Phoenix. We have modeled our schoolyard programs to parallel actual research protocols carried out by CAP LTER scientists. Our schoolyards are within the CAP LTER research area and thus teachers and students can collect data that will be useful in understanding urban ecology. The ultimate goal of the program is to have students collect data via a specific protocol, enter the data into our server and then share the data with students from other schools across Phoenix. This means that students will be able to compare biodiversity across Phoenix and develop hypotheses about the spatial and temporal distributions of plant and animal populations. Many teachers would also like to take their students to visit other parts of Phoenix and directly collect population data in habitats different from their schoolyards. To accommodate this request and to instill increased awareness of CAP LTER projects we have approached several informal education centers in Phoenix to develop "focused field trips." These field trips will allow students to utilize the natural resources and expertise at these centers as extensions of their schoolyard projects. The informal education centers we are working with include our local zoo, an outdoor education center, city parks and a history museum. 

We would like to invite other LTER education programs to present papers or be part of a round table discussion on how to create these "field trips" that presents the unique qualities of LTER sites (i.e. as areas of active research not just a trip to the park). We would also like to encourage discussion on interacting with other informal science educators in the local community. 

ED-5 TITLE: Learning from LTER Data in K-12 Classrooms 

Organizers: Marianne Krasny, and Karen Baker (PAL)

ABSTRACT: LTER educators are developing activities focusing on interpretation of existing LTER data as well as sharing data students have collected themselves. For example, a Cornell University LTER handbook for teachers includes exercises focusing on global warming using the North Temperate Lakes ice out data, and on the effect of clearcutting on hydrologic budgets using Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest data. At Ohio State University, faculty working with the McMurdo Dry Valleys LTER have developed opportunities for school children in Seattle, WA and Tuscaloosa, AL to share data on stream health, and to compare their measurements with those taken on streams in Antarctica. Such educational activities can help students to understand ecological principles as well as data analysis and interpretation. The workshop will begin with short presentations by individuals who have developed educational activities based on data interpretation and data sharing. This will be followed by discussions of: (1) how to best design these activities to meet the National Science Education Standards, (2) using the Internet and other computer technologies to enhance learning, (3) working with the LTER data managers in developing these activities, and (4) opportunities to coordinate data sharing across LTER sites. 


SE-1 Title: Spatial and temporal scales issues in the social and ecological sciences. 

Organizer:  Peter Nowak (NTL) 

Abstract: All LTER sites have had to grapple with the dominant units of analysis engendered in disciplinary-bound theory and methods. The recent addition of social science to some LTER sites has magnified the importance of this issue. This workshop will identify and discuss the complexity of terms such as "scale" and "unit of analysis" and "time" when applied to joint social and ecological research. Common problems arising from differences in scales and units of analysis will be identified as well as possible solutions. The workshop will aim to gain a better understanding of issues of scale apparent in joint ecological and social science research. The intent is to establish a foundation for developing productive strategies for addressing scale issues in future research. Products from the workshop could include papers and a summary of the discussions with a view toward a published article in a scientific journal. 

SE-2 Title: Strategies for the integration of social, life, and earth sciences for the LTER network.

Organizers: Jennifer Edmonds (CAP) and Morgan Grove (BES) 

Abstract: Linking physical, biological, and social sciences has become an area of great interest in the LTER Network. Social scientists have begun working at several LTER sites to add to our understanding of these ecosystems by exploring the interaction of humans with other populations, energy flow, and nutrient cycling, etc. To further this research interest, the LTER network established two urban LTER sites (Phoenix and Baltimore) in 1997, where interdisciplinary work is used extensively to understand ecosystems heavily influenced by humans. These new ecological research efforts in urban environments has made it evident that there is a pressing need for scientists who are able to work effectively in interdisciplinary groups. 

A number of methods, tools, and techniques for integration have begun to emerge already: GIS and maps (spatial analyses); hierarchical approaches (scale); historical analyses; comparative studies; place-based, problem-focused research; checklists of core areas and concepts; explicit use and linkages of theory across disciplines; integrated data protocols, and models as heuristic devices. The purpose of this workshop is to further explore methods, tools, and techniques for integration. We propose to use case studies from existing work as fodder for discussion. Products from this workshop include a summary that will be converted into articles for journals such as Ecosystems or Society and Natural Resources. 

SE-3 Title: Social science data: methods, tools, and protocols for integrated research. 

Organizer: Morgan Grove (BES) 

A key area of focus of the LTER Network is the collection of common, core sets of information. This focus is complicated by the need for collecting data in different types of ecosystems and at different temporal and spatial scales. This challenge is made more complex by interdisciplinary research that may require different but complementary methods, tools, and protocols from the physical, biological, and social sciences. 

This workshop will focus on complementary data strategies and a set of key social variables that may be appropriate for comparative research. The intent of this workshop is to provide a foundation for site and cross-site interdisciplinary research. The results from this research will be summarized as a webpage for the LTER Network and in a journal article. 

SE-4 Title: A framework for integrating core social science areas for the LTER Network and opportunities for cross-site comparisons. 

Organizers: Charles Redman (CAP) and Morgan Grove (BES)

Abstract: In addition to collecting a common core of information, a main goal of the National Science Foundation sponsored Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites is to understand the dynamics of ecosystems using diverse approaches. Although the types of ecosystems, disciplinary expertise, and actual approaches often differ among LTER sites, conceptual similarities overshadow differences. 

It is increasingly clear that there may be conceptual similarities among social science and interdisciplinary approaches for the LTER sites as well. This workshop reports on results from the 1998 LTER Networks Annual Coordinating Committee Meeting (Madison, WI, Fall) and the social science workshop that was supported by both the LTER Network and the SBE Directorate of NSF (Phoenix, AZ, January 19-22). The workshop will discuss the results from these meetings and opportunities for cross-site comparisons. Products from this workshop include a summary of the discussions, which may be converted into published articles in appropriate disciplinary and interdisciplinary journals, and preliminary cross-site research proposals. 


LM-2 Title: Development of coupled hydrological-biogeochemical models of materials transport at the landscape scale. 

Organizers: John Melack, Tom Dunne and Nancy Grimm (CAP) 

This workshop is aimed at organizing a future Chapman conference to discuss the state-of-the art and future directions for a broad class of models that include GIS-based, surface water flow & transport, and spatially articulate ecosystem-based approaches.  Of particular interest is the development of models that will couple physics, chemistry & biology to understand materials transport and transformation at the landscape scale.  We encourage participation of researchers interested in modeling transport through riparian zones, riverine networks and estuaries. Another task will be to identify types of data acquisition needed to successfully calibrate and validate the next generation of coupled models. 

LM-3 Title: Small watershed studies in the LTER Network. 

Organizers:  Peter Groffman (HBR) and Charles Driscoll (HBR) 

Abstract: For this workshop, we would solicit 15 minute presentations from any and all sites that are using the small watershed approach in their studies.  We would then spend some time discussing new frontiers and possibilities for intersite collaboration in this area. Discussion topics would include; critical ecological questions being addressed with small watersheds, key environmental science and policy issues being addressed with small watersheds, new technologies for sampling, analysis and data handling, specific intersite collaborative projects. 

LM-4 Regulation of organic matter preservation in wetland sediments.

Organizers: James Morris & Chuck Hopkinson (PIE), Iris Anderson (VCR), Rudolf Jaffe (FCE), and Steve Pennings (GAC) 

Abstract: Rationale: Wetlands display radically different tendencies to preserve sediment organic matter, ranging from systems dominated by mineral sediments to those that accumulate peat. Organic matter accumulation is the balance between production, net export, and respiration. We hypothesize that decay of organic matter is the primary factor accounting for site to site variation in its accumulation. Workshop Goals: The goals of the workshop are 1) to explore relationships between soil organic matter content and edaphic factors using existing data sets, 2) to plan for a pilot reciprocal peat transplant intercomparison experiment, and 3) to discuss the development of a proposal for an inter-site, collaborative study of organic matter preservation exposed to a variety of natural environmental conditions. Future research on this topic might begin by correlating the existing SOM content with 1) chemical and physical site characteristics and 2) chemical characteristics of the material, including 14C age, C/N ratio, pyrolysis-GC/MS analysis, lignins, and vanillic acid:vanillin ratio. Following these characterizations, transplanted cores could be incubated in situ and periodic measurements would be made of pore water DIC and gas exchange (CO2, CH4) in order to monitor decay rate. Cores would be harvested at the conclusion of the experiment and the weight-loss of organic matter determined. Workshop participants should come prepared with data sets describing 1) organic content and general soil characteristics [pH, C/N ratio, bulk density, porosity] of candidate sites, 2) physical site description [salinity, temperature, hydroperiod, sedimentation rate], 3) extant information on decay and sediment respiration rates, 4) species composition, 5) sources of information. We envision a manuscript resulting from the analyses of these data sets. 

LM-5 Title: Microbial biogeography: cross-site comparison of aquatic systems

Organizer: Tim Hollibaugh (co-organizer John Priscu) 

Abstract: We now measure microbial biomass, productivity, and process rates in aquatic habitats. There is a need for long-term spatially distributed investigations that allow us to draw conclusions about distribution of microbes. This would be a first step towards examining links between microbial species and function in a variety of aquatic systems. Analysis of rDNA sequences and phospholipid profiles have become powerful means to describe microbial assemblages. These tools can be used to understand the geographical limits to the distribution of species and provide insights into their relationship with ecosystem properties. One approach would be to apply standardized biochemical and molecular methods to samples collected across a wide range of aquatic ecosystems. Specific questions that might be addressed include: are there cosmopolitan species; what are the characteristics of microbial gradients across ecotones (stream/lake, stream/estuary, hyporheic/stream); how universal are consortial relationships; is there a consistent functional distribution across environments? Workshop discussion will focus on the significance, methodologies, and sites to initiate a study of microbial biogeography. 

A.  Graduate Student Seminars 

The primary emphasis of these seminars is the education of those who are interested in, but are not currently familiar with the topic. Depending on the interest level, we will probably have a web-based sign up for these seminars. 

GW-1 Title:  An introduction to GIS 

Organizer:  Deana Pennington (AND) 

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are rapidly developing as primary technologies for the investigation of large scale patterns and processes.  Timely answers to landscape, regional and global scale questions depends on the effective application of biogeophysical knowledge against the increasingly voluminous spatial and temporal data available for analysis.  Yet, the usefulness of GIS is not confined to large scale problems, especially as more user-friendly technologies become available.  GIS is a powerful tool for managing, mapping, analyzing and visualizing data in its spatial context, from microscopic to global scales, limited only by the creativity of our methodology. 
This seminar will be an introduction to viewing the world through GIS, designed for those with limited GIS exposure or those desiring more exposure to cutting edge applications of GIS in natural science. 

GW-2 Title:  Career development workshop.

Organizer: Erica Hoffa (AND) 

Abstract: It is never too early to start planning for your future career.  Yet, the thought of marketing oneself, while still in graduate school, is often intimidating, frustrating and is always time consuming.  How do you determine that you are following the right career path?  Is academia for you? What is the importance of the Ph.D. degree in the job market today? How do you work with your advisor to best meet your goals?  How do you write an effective resume and CV? How can you efficiently search for career and graduate school information on the web? This workshop will help graduate students who are in all phases of their career development determine and achieve their goals.  Web reference lists and a discussion of career opportunities will be discussed.  A panel of scientists in various stages and endpoints in career development will be present, including a graduate student, postdoc, junior, and senior faculty member, and a representative from industry/consulting, to discuss how their career goals have been or are in the process of being developed.  How did their experience shape where they are today?  Focused questions in advance will be supplemented with questions from the audience in the hopes of stimulating discussion of the various issues facing graduate students as they enter careers in science, and long term research in particular. 

GW-3 Title:  Remote sensing seminar

Organizer: Erica Hoffa (AND) 

Abstract: Remotely sensed data are increasingly being collected over broad spatial and temporal scales.  This is essential to monitor and model long term patterns and processes consistently and completely. Yet, remote sensing is also a monitoring technique that is used at the scale of a single leaf or smaller.  Given the diversity of scientific questions that can be answered with remotely sensed data, and the myriad remote sensing platforms, it is no wonder that moving succinctly from the problem statement, through data collection, data analysis, and image presentation is a long process that is usually reserved for remote sensing specialists.  Increasingly user-friendly processing methods and increasing commercialization of the industry, concomitant with burgeoning scientific inquiry at broad and narrow scales, is augmenting interest in the potential of using remote sensing more commonly.  This seminar is intended for students who have a general interest in the applicability of remote sensing data in long-term studies but limited formal training.  The goal is to provide a simple overview of remote sensing principles, to provide a information on how to obtain remote sensing data of interest to terrestrial and aquatic ecologists, and to provide an outline of the many ways to use remote sensing in long term research.  This is not intended as a tutorial on image processing per se but rather as a discussion of how students can use remote sensing in their current and/or future research endeavors.  Students who have more formal remote sensing training will also find the review of remote sensing references (if not remote sensing principles) helpful.